Tumor Bearing Organisms – Lipolysis and Ketogenesis as Signs of Chronic Stress

Also see:
PUFA, Ketones, and Sugar Restriction Promote Tumor Growth

“When cancer cells are implanted into a healthy host, they seldom grow, but when implanted into a host who already has cancer, they grow. (Hakim, 1988.) The healthy host provides many restorative factors, the sick host provides additional harmful factors, but few restorative factors (Chekulaev, et aI., 1987.)” -Ray Peat, PhD

Cancer. 1988 Feb 15;61(4):689-701.
Peripheral blood lymphocytes from patients with cancer lack interleukin-2 receptors.
Hakim AA.
When tumor cells develop in healthy adults, they activate the cellular immune system–natural killer (NK) cells, antigen-specific cytotoxic lymphocytes (CTL), and the synthesis of antigen specific cytotoxic antibodies. These are aimed at killing the intruding cells. However, in cancer patients the tumor continues to grow. As tumor cells proliferate, they were shown to release factors that mediate the inactivation of the host immune defense systems. The study documented in this article examined peripheral blood lymphocytes, mononuclear cells (MNC), NK cells, T-helper cells (THC). This study confirmed the interaction of the released inhibitor factors with these mononuclear cells. NULL cells from healthy adults responding to interleukin-2 (IL-2) and NILL cells from patients with metastatic breast carcinoma nonresponsive to IL-2 were also isolated by the standard antibodies-pinning technique. The cells were obtained from age-matched subjects: ten healthy adults; ten patients each from Stage I, II, III, and IV metastatic breast carcinoma (BCa-I, BCa-II, BCa-III, and BCa-IV or MBCa); and ten patients with benign breast disease (BBD). The responsiveness of these THC, PBMNC, NK, NULL, and NILL cells in vitro to graded levels of phytohemagglutinin (PHA), Concanavalin A (Con A), and recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) was examined. Responsiveness was monitored by 3H-thymidine (3H-TdR) uptake, production and release of IL-2, interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R), and cytotoxic activities against K-562 cells and breast carcinoma short-term cell lines. A lack of functional IL-2R in peripheral blood lymphocytes from patients with metastatic breast carcinoma was confirmed by nonsignificant anti-Tac antibody binding. An elevation in the expression of cell surface antigen GP-120 has been observed to be associated with the activation in vitro of T-cells from healthy adults and from patients with benign breast disease, but not of T-cells from patients with breast carcinoma. Biochemical studies of the GP-120 using high performance liquid chromatography combined with nitrocellulose blotting confirmed that the glycoprotein was resistant to trypsin and chymotrypsin, but susceptible to pronase. It contained sialic acid and lactosaminoglycan as O-linked sugars. It could be labeled with pariodate/NaB(3H4) and is recognized by MAbT-305 monoclonal antibodies. It contained sialic acid linked (2—3) to galactose.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

Biokhimiia. 1987 Sep;52(9):1501-11.
[Activation of lipolysis and ketogenesis in tumor-bearing animals as a reflection of chronic stress states].
[Article in Russian]
Chekulaev VA, Shelepov VP, Pasha-zade GR, Shapot VS.
In order to elucidate the peculiarities of brain metabolism in tumour-bearing organisms, the arterio-venous (A-V) content of glucose, acetoacetate (Ac-Ac), beta-hydroxybutyrate (beta-HB) and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) in growing Zajdela ascite hepatoma (ZAH) and solid hepatoma 27 (H-27) was compared. Analysis of metabolic patterns of healthy, starving and fed recipients (ZAH and H-27) revealed the inadequacy of the concepts on anorexia as being the cause of carbohydrate-lipid metabolic disturbances. In tumour-bearing organisms lipolysis and ketogenesis reflect the tumour-induced chronic stress. Absorption of beta-HB and release of Ac-Ac by brain were observed at all stages of malignant growth. This is probably due to a partial switch-over of brain metabolism to non-carbohydrate energy sources. Besides, certain stages of tumour growth are associated with active assimilation of NEFA by brain. A correlation between the A-V difference with respect to glucose and Ac-Ac as well as between the glucose and NEFA contents was established. It was assumed that the A-V difference in glucose is the main regulator of ketone body metabolism.

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