Protective Carbon Dioxide, Exercise, and Performance

Also see:
Protective Altitude
Synergistic Effect of Creatine and Baking Soda on Performance
Ray Peat, PhD on Carbon Dioxide, Longevity, and Regeneration
Exercise Induced Stress
Exercise and Effect on Thyroid Hormone
Lactate Paradox: High Altitude and Exercise
Carbohydrate Lowers Exercise Induced Stress
Exercise Induced Menstrual Disorders
Aspirin and Exercise
Bicarbonate For Strength Athletes: 25g of Baking Soda Up Your Squat (+27%) & Bench Press (+6%) Within 60 Min
How Measuring My Urine pH Got Me to Love Working Out Again


Volume 57, Number 1, 45-48, DOI: 10.1007/BF00691236
Induced metabolic alkalosis and its effects on 400-m racing time
Jo Goldfinch, Lars Mc Naughton and Peter Davies
Six trained male athletes who competed regularly in 400 metre races, were studied under control, alkalotic (NaHCO3) and placebo (CaCO3) conditions to study the effect of induced metabolic alkalosis on 400 m racing time. Pre and post exercise blood samples in the three conditions were analysed for pH, bicarbonate and base excess. Following ingestion of NaHCO3, pre-exercise pH, bicarbonate and base excess levels were significantly higher than either control or placebo conditions. In the alkalotic condition the subjects ran significantly (p<0.005) faster (1.52 s) than either the control of placebo conditions. The post-exercise pH, bicarbonate and base excess levels were all lower in the alkalotic condition than in the others. The results suggest that NaHCO3 can be used as an effective ergogenic aid and support the speculation that the increased extracellular buffering afforded by NaHCO3 ingestion facilitated efflux of H+ from the working tissues, thus decreasing intracellular pH and hence offsetting fatigue.

J Strength Cond Res. 2014 May;28(5):1358-66. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0000000000000277.
The effect of sodium bicarbonate ingestion on back squat and bench press exercise to failure.
Duncan MJ, Weldon A, Price MJ.
Duncan, MJ, Weldon, A, and Price, MJ. The effect of sodium bicarbonate ingestion on back squat and bench press exercise to failure. J Strength Cond Res 28(5): 1358-1366, 2014-This study examined the acute effects of NaHCO3 ingestion on repetitions to failure and rating of perceived exertion in the back squat and bench press in trained men. Eight resistance-trained men took part in this double-blind, randomized crossover experimental study whereby they ingested NaHCO3 (0.3 g·kg body mass) or placebo (sodium chloride NaCl: 0.045 g·kg body mass) solution 60 minutes before completing a bout of resistance exercise (3 sets of bench press and back squat exercise to failure at an intensity of 80% 1 repetition maximum). Experimental conditions were separated by at least 48 hours. Participants completed more repetitions to failure in the back squat after NaHCO3 ingestion (p = 0.04) but not for bench press (p = 0.679). Mean ± SD of total repetitions was 31.3 ± 15.3 and 24.6 ± 16.2 for back squat and 28.7 ± 12.2 and 26.7 ± 10.2 for bench press in NaHCO3 and placebo conditions, respectively. Repetitions to failure decreased as set increased for the back squat and bench press (p = 0.001, both). Rating of perceived exertion significantly increased with set for the back squat and bench press (p = 0.002, both). There was no significant change in blood lactate across time or between conditions. There were however treatment × time interactions for blood pH (p = 0.014) and blood HCO3 concentration (p = 0.001). After ingestion, blood pH and HCO3 (p = 0.008) concentrations were greater for the NaHCO3 condition compared with the placebo condition (p < 0.001). The results of this study suggest that sodium bicarbonate ingestion can enhance resistance exercise performance using a repetition to failure protocol in the first exercise in a resistance exercise session.

J Sports Sci. 1992 Oct;10(5):415-23.
Bicarbonate ingestion: effects of dosage on 60 s cycle ergometry.
McNaughton LR.
Nine healthy male subjects who were all participating in athletic events volunteered to take part in this study, the aim of which was to determine whether there are specific dosages of sodium bicarbonate (HCO3-) that are useful as an ergogenic aid as far as anaerobic performance times are concerned. A control, placebo (CaCO3 500 mg kg-1) and five dosages of bicarbonate (100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 mg kg-1) were used. The anaerobic test consisted of pedalling a Repco Exertech cycle ergometer for 1 min during which total work (kJ) and peak power (W) were measured. The subjects completed more work in the 200 (P < 0.05), 300, 400 and 500 mg kg-1 (P < 0.005) trials with most work being undertaken in the 300 mg kg-1 trial (41.9 kJ min-1). Peak power was not significantly different from the control until the 300 mg kg-1 dose, and there were no further changes from this with increasing doses of HCO3-. The highest level of peak power achieved was 1295 +/- 72.8 W at the 300 mg kg-1 dosage. Blood pH indicated that after ingestion of all but the 100 mg kg-1 dose, a state of alkalosis was achieved (P < 0.005), and this was also indicated by changes in base excess. Bicarbonate levels increased post-ingestion in all but the 100 mg kg-1 dose, with these changes reflecting the changes that occurred in the work output. Blood lactate (BLa) levels increased post-exercise (P < 0.0001). The BLa level during ingestion of 200mg kg-1 does was higher than the control, placebo, or 100 mg kg-1 dose (P<0.05), and this was also true for the three remaining doses (P<0.01). In conclusion, it is suggested that the optimal dose of bicarbonate for anaerobic performance of 1 min is 300mg kg-1. Further doses showed no greater increase in work and there was increased gastrointestinal disturbance.

Int J Sports Med. 2010 Nov;31(11):797-802. Epub 2010 Aug 11.
Metabolic alkalosis, recovery and sprint performance.
Siegler JC, McNaughton LR, Midgley AW, Keatley S, Hillman A.
Pre-exercise alkalosis and an active recovery improve the physiological state of recovery through slightly different mechanisms (e. g. directly increasing extracellular bicarbonate (HCO3 (-)) vs. increasing blood flow), and combining the two conditions may provide even greater influence on blood acid-base recovery from high-intensity exercise. Nine subjects completed four trials (Placebo Active ( PLAC A), sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) Active ( BICARB A), Placebo Passive ( PLAC P) and NaHCO3 Passive ( BICARB P)), each consisting of three, 30-s maximal efforts with a three min recovery between each effort. Pre-exercisealkalosis was evident in both NaHCO3 conditions, as pH and HCO3 (-) were significantly higher than both Placebo conditions (pH: 7.46 ± 0.04 vs. 7.39 ± 0.02; HCO3 (-): 28.8 ± 1.9 vs. 23.2 ± 1.4  mmol·L (-1); p<0.001). In terms of performance, significant interactions were observed for average speed (p<0.05), with higher speeds evident in the BICARB A condition (3.9 ± 0.3 vs. 3.7 ± 0.4  m·s (-1)). Total distance covered was different (p=0.05), with post hoc differences evident between the BICARB A and PLAC P conditions (368 ± 33 vs. 364 ± 35 m). These data suggest that successive 30-s high intensity performance may be improved when coupled with NaHCO3 supplementation.

Int J Sports Med. 2008 Jul;29(7):545-51. Epub 2007 Nov 14.
Pre-exercise alkalosis and acid-base recovery.
Siegler JC, Keatley S, Midgley AW, Nevill AM, McNaughton LR.
The aim of this study was to observe the influence of pre-exercise sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) ingestion and varying recovery modes on acid-base recovery from a single bout of supramaximal exercise. Nine male subjects completed four separate, randomized cycle ergometer exercise trials to volitional fatigue at 120% maximum power output, under the following conditions: 0.3 BW NaHCO3 ingestion with passive recovery (BICARB P), 0.3 (-1) BW NaHCO3 ingestion with active recovery (BICARB A), placebo ingestion with passive recovery (PLAC P) and placebo ingestion with active recovery (PLAC A). Capillary blood samples were obtained every minute for 15 min during recovery. Significant main effects for pH were observed for time (F = 42.1, p < 0.001), intervention (BICARB and PLAC) (F = 1117.3, p < 0.001) and recovery condition (F = 150.0, p < 0.001), as the BICARB condition reduced acid-base perturbation. Significant interaction effects were observed between conditions (BICARB and PLAC) for active and passive recovery modes (F = 29.1, p < 0.001) as the active recovery facilitated H+ removal better than the passive condition. Pre-exercise alkalosis attenuates blood acid-base perturbations from supramaximal exercise to exhaustion, regardless of whether the recovery mode is active or passive. These findings suggest that individuals may benefit from introducing a pre-exercise alkalotic condition while including passive recovery during high-intensity training protocols.

Int J Sports Med. 2008 Jun;29(6):519-23. Epub 2007 Nov 14.
Sodium bicarbonate improves swimming performance.
Lindh AM, Peyrebrune MC, Ingham SA, Bailey DM, Folland JP.
Sodium bicarbonate ingestion has been shown to improve performance in single-bout, high intensity events, probably due to an increase in buffering capacity, but its influence on single-bout swimming performance has not been investigated. The effects of sodium bicarbonate supplementation on 200 m freestyle swimming performance were investigated in elite male competitors. Following a randomised, double blind counterbalanced design, 9 swimmers completed maximal effort swims on 3 separate occasions: a control trial (C); after ingestion of sodium bicarbonate (SB: NaHCO3 300 mg . kg (-1) body mass); and after ingestion of a placebo (P: CaCO3 200 mg . kg (-1) body mass). The SB and P agents were packed in gelatine capsules and ingested 90 – 60 min prior to each 200 m swim. Mean 200 m performance times were significantly faster for SB than C or P (1 : 52.2 +/- 4.7; 1 : 53.7 +/- 3.8; 1 : 54.0 +/- 3.6 min : ss; p < 0.05). Base excess, pH and blood bicarbonate were all elevated pre-exercise in the SB compared to C and P trials (p < 0.05). Post-200 m blood lactate concentrations were significantly higher following the SB trial compared with P and C (p < 0.05). It was concluded that SB supplementation can improve 200 m freestyle performance time in elite male competitors, most likely by increasing buffering capacity.

J Strength Cond Res. 2010 Nov;24(11):3105-11.
Sodium bicarbonate ingestion and repeated swim sprint performance.
Siegler JC, Gleadall-Siddall DO.
The purpose of the present investigation was to observe the ergogenic potential of 0.3 g·kg-1 of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) in competitive, nonelite swimmers using a repeated swim sprint design that eliminated the technical component of turning. Six male (181.2 ± 7.2 cm; 80.3 ± 11.9 kg; 50.8 ± 5.5 ml·kg-1·min-1 VO2max) and 8 female (168.8 ± 5.6 cm; 75.3 ± 10.1 kg; 38.8 ± 2.6 ml·kg-1·min-1 VO2max) swimmers completed 2 trial conditions (NaHCO3 [BICARB] and NaCl placebo [PLAC]) implemented in a randomized (counterbalanced), single blind manner, each separated by 1 week. Swimmers were paired according to ability and completed 8, 25-m front crawl maximal effort sprints each separated by 5 seconds. Blood acid-base status was assessed preingestion, pre, and postswim via capillary finger sticks, and total swim time was calculated as a performance measure. Total swim time was significantly decreased in the BICARB compared to PLAC condition (p = 0.04), with the BICARB condition resulting in a 2% decrease in total swim time compared to the PLAC condition (159.4 ± 25.4 vs. 163.2 ± 25.6 seconds; mean difference = 4.4 seconds; 95% confidence interval = 8.7-0.1). Blood analysis revealed significantly elevated blood buffering potential preswim (pH: BICARB = 7.48 ± 0.01, PLAC = 7.41 ± 0.01) along with a significant decrease in extracellular K+ (BICARB = 4.0 ± 0.1 mmol·L-1, PLAC = 4.6 ± 0.1 mmol·L-1). The findings suggest that 0.3 g·kg-1 NaHCO3 ingested 2.5 hours before exercise enhances the blood buffering potential and may positively influence swim performance.

J Strength Cond Res. 2010 Jan;24(1):103-8.
Sodium bicarbonate ingestion and boxing performance.
Siegler JC, Hirscher K.
Boxing is a sport that consists of multiple high-intensity bouts separated by minimal recovery time and may benefit from a pre-exercise alkalotic state. The purpose of this study was to observe the ergogenic potential of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) ingestion on boxing performance. Ten amateur boxers volunteered to participate in 2 competitive sparring bouts. The boxers were prematched for weight and boxing ability and consumed either 0.3 body weight (BW) of NaHCO3 (BICARB) or 0.045 BW of NaCl placebo (PLAC) mixed in diluted low calorie-flavored cordial. The sparring bouts consisted of four 3-minute rounds, each separated by 1-minute seated recovery. Blood acid-base (pH, bicarbonate [HCO3(-)], base excess [BE]), and performance (rates of perceived exertion [RPE], heart rate [HR] [HR(ave) and HR(max)], total punches landed successfully) profiles were analyzed before (where applicable) and after sparring. The results indicated a significant interaction effect for HCO3(-) (p < or = 0.001) and BE (p < 0.001), but not for pH (p = 0.48). Post hoc analysis revealed higher presparring HCO3(-) and BE for the BICARB condition, but no differences between the BICARB and PLAC conditions postsparring. There was a significant increase in punches landed during the BICARB condition (p < 0.001); however, no significant interaction effects for HRave (p = 0.15), HRmax (p = 0.32), or RPE (p = 0.38). The metabolic alkalosis induced by the NaHCO3 loading elevated before and after sparring blood buffering capacity. In practical application, the findings suggest that a standard NaHCO3 loading dose (0.3 improves punch efficacy during 4 rounds of sparring performance.

Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1988;58(1-2):171-4.
Sodium bicarbonate ingestion improves performance in interval swimming.
Gao JP, Costill DL, Horswill CA, Park SH.
In an effort to determine the effects of bicarbonate (NaHCO3) ingestion on exercise performance, ten male college swimmers were studied during five different trials. Each trial consisted of five 91.4 m (100-yd) front crawl swims with a two-minute rest interval between each bout. The trials consisted of two NaHCO3 treatments, two placebo trials and one test with no-drink. One hour before the onset of swimming, the subjects were given 300 ml of citric acid flavored solution containing either 17 mmol of NaCl (placebo) or 2.9 mmol of body weight (experimental), or received no drink (no-drink). Performance times for each 91.4 m swim were recorded. Blood samples were obtained before and one hr after treatment, two min after warmup, and two min after the final 91.4 m sprint. Blood pH, lactate, standard bicarbonate (SBC) and base excess (BE) were measured. No differences were found for performance or the blood measurements between the placebo and no-drink trials. Bicarbonate feedings, on the other hand, produced a significant (P less than 0.05) improvement in performance on the fourth and fifth swimming sprints. Blood lactate, pH, SBC and BE were significantly higher (P less than 0.05) at post-exercise in NaHCO3 treatments. These data are in agreement with previous findings that during repeated bouts of exercise pre-exercise administration of NaHCO3 improves performance, possibly by facilitating the efflux of hydrogen ions from working muscles and thereby delaying the onset of fatigue.

Journal of Sports Sciences Volume 13, Issue 5, 1995
The effect of sodium bicarbonate ingestion on 1500‐m racing time
S.R. Birda, J. Wiles & J. Robbins
Twelve athletes, all of whom regularly participated in middle‐ or long‐distance running races at club to national standard, competed in simulated 1500‐m races under three conditions: following ingestion of 300 mg sodium bicarbonate per kg of body mass (B); following ingestion of a placebo (100 mg sodium chloride per kg of body mass and 200 mg calcium carbonate per kg of body mass) (P); and following ingestion of neither (C). A double‐blind protocol was used between the B and P trials. Each condition was replicated so that the athletes competed in six races. Ten of the athletes completed all the races. The athletes’ average times for trials B, P and C were 253.9, 256.8 and 258.0 s, respectively. The data were analysed using a two‐way ANOVA with replicates and Tukey tests. This revealed a difference between trial B and trials P and C (P < 0.05), but no difference between trials P and C. These findings, therefore, indicate that sodium bicarbonate can have an ergogenic effect upon 1500‐m running.

Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2009) 8, 45 – 50
Adam Zajac, Jaroslaw Cholewa, Stanislaw Poprzecki, Zbigniew Waskiewicz and Jozef Langfort
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral administration of sodium bicarbonate (300 mg·kg-1 b.w.) on swim performance in competitive, (training experience of 6.6 ± 0.6 years) youth, (15.1 ± 0.6 years) male swimmers. The subjects completed a test trial, in a double blind fashion, on separate days, consisting of 4 x 50m front crawl swims with a 1st minute passive rest interval twice, on two occasions: after ingestion of bicarbonate or placebo, 72 hours apart, at the same time of the day. Blood samples were drawn from the finger tip three times during each trial; upon arrival to the laboratory, 60 min after ingestion of placebo or the sodium bicarbonate solution and after the 4 x 50m test, during the 1st min of recovery. Plasma lactate concentration, blood pH, standard bicarbonate and base excess were evaluated. The total time of the 4 x 50 m test trial improved from 1.54.28 to 1.52.85s, while statistically significant changes in swimming speed were recorded only during the first 50m sprint (1.92 vs. 1.97 m·s-1, p < 0.05). Resting blood concentration of HCO-3 increased following the ingestion of sodium bicarbonate from 25.13 to 28.49 mM (p < 0.05). Sodium bicarbonate intake had a statistically significant effect on resting blood pH (7.33 vs. 7.41, p < .05) as well as on post exercise plasma lactate concentration (11.27 vs. 13.06 mM, p < 0.05)). Collectively, these data demonstrate that the ingestion of sodium bicarbonate in youth athletes is an effective buffer during high intensity interval swimming and suggest that such a procedure can be used in youth athletes to increase training intensity as well as swimming performance in competition at distances from 50 to 200 m.

J Appl Physiol. 1997 Aug;83(2):333-7.
Effect of ingested sodium bicarbonate on muscle force, fatigue, and recovery.
Verbitsky O, Mizrahi J, Levin M, Isakov E.
The influence of acute ingestion of NaHCO3 on fatigue and recovery of the quadriceps femoris muscle after exercise was studied in six healthy male subjects. A bicycle ergometer was used for exercising under three loading conditions: test A, load corresponding to maximal oxygen consumption; test B, load in test A + 17%; test C, load in test B but performed 1 h after acute ingestion of NaHCO3. Functional electrical stimulation (FES) was applied to provoke isometric contraction of the quadriceps femoris. The resulting knee torque was monitored during fatigue (2-min chronic FES) and recovery (10-s FES every 10 min, for 40 min). Quadriceps torques were higher in the presence of NaHCO3 (P < 0.05): with NaHCO3 the peak, residual, and recovery (after 40 min) normalized torques were, respectively, 0.68 +/- 0.05 (SD), 0.58 +/- 0.05, and 0.73 +/- 0.05; without NaHCO3 the values were 0.45 +/- 0.04, 0.30 +/- 0.06, and 0.63 +/- 0.06. The increased torques obtained after acute ingestion of NaHCO3 indicate the possible existence of improved nonoxidative glycolysis in isometric contraction, resulting in reduced fatigue and enhanced recovery.

Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1983;15(4):277-80.
Effect of acute induced metabolic alkalosis on 800-m racing time.
Wilkes D, Gledhill N, Smyth R.
Six trained middle-distance runners wer studied under alkalotic (NaHCO3 ingestion), placebo (CaCO3 ingestion), and control conditions to determine the effect of an acute induced metabolic alkalosis on time to run an 800-m race. Pre-exercise, following NaHCO3 ingestion, pH and standard [HCO3-] were significantly higher. In the alkalotic condition, subjects ran faster (2.9 s) and the corresponding post-exercise values for blood [lactate] and extracellular H+ were higher than in the control and placebo conditions, suggesting an increased anaerobic energy contribution. These results support the speculation that the increase in extracellular buffering following NaHCO3 ingestion facilitated H+ efflux from the cells of working muscle, thereby delaying the decrease in intracellular pH and postponing fatigue. It is concluded that the ingestion of NaHCO3 by trained middle-distance runners prior to an 800-m race has an ergogenic benefit.

J Sports Sci. 1992 Oct;10(5):425-35.
Sodium bicarbonate ingestion and its effects on anaerobic exercise of various durations.
McNaughton LR.
Four groups of male subjects participated in anaerobic testing on a Repco EX10 cycle ergometer to determine the effectiveness of sodium bicarbonate (0.3 g kg-1 body mass) as an ergogenic aid during exercise of 10, 30, 120 and 240 s duration. Blood was collected 90 min prior to ingestion of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), after ingestion of NaHCO3 and immediately post-exercise from a heated (43-46 degrees C) fingertip and analysed immediately post-collection for pH, base excess, bicarbonate and lactate. The total work undertaken (kJ) and peak power achieved during the tests were also obtained via a Repco Work Monitor Unit. Blood bicarbonate levels were again increased above the control and placebo conditions (P < 0.001) and blood lactate levels were also increased following the bicarbonate trials. The pH levels fell significantly (P < 0.05) below the control and placebo conditions in all trials. The results indicate that NaHCO3 at this dosage has no ergogenic benefit for work of either 10 or 30 s duration, even though blood bicarbonate levels were significantly increased (P < 0.05) following ingestion of NaHCO3. For work periods of 120 and 240 s, performance was significantly increased (P < 0.05) above the control and placebo conditions following NaHCO3 ingestion.

Br J Sports Med. 1989 March; 23(1): 41–45.
Effect of sodium bicarbonate ingestion upon repeated sprints.
G Lavender and S R Bird
The purpose of the study was to assess the effect of sodium bicarbonate ingestion upon repeated bouts of intensive short duration exercise. Twenty-three subjects participated in the investigation (8 females and 15 males, age 21.4 +/- 2.3, mean +/- sd). Subjects completed six trials; three following the ingestion of sodium bicarbonate (300 mg/kg body weight) and three following the ingestion of a placebo (8 g sodium chloride). Each trial consisted of ten ten-second sprints on a cycle ergometer with 50 seconds recovery between each sprint. ‘Peak power’ and ‘average power output’ during each ten second sprint was measured from the flywheel of the ergometer using a light-sensitive monitor (Cranlea) linked to a BBC microcomputer. The power outputs recorded during each ten-second sprint of the bicarbonate trials were then compared with those recorded during the corresponding sprint of the placebo trials. The bicarbonate trials produced higher mean ‘average power’ outputs in all ten of the ten-second sprints, with the difference in ‘average power’ output being statistically significant in eight of these (p less than 0.05). The results also revealed that the difference in the ‘average power’ outputs attained during the bicarbonate and placebo trials increased as the number of sprint repetitions increased (p less than 0.01). ‘Peak power’ output was also greater in the bicarbonate trials with it being significantly higher (p less than 0.001) during the final ten-second sprint. It was concluded that during exercise consisting of repeated, short-duration sprints, power output was enhanced following the ingestion of sodium bicarbonate, (300 mg/kg body weight).

Boll Soc Ital Biol Sper. 1984 Mar 30;60(3):617-23.
[Acid-base equilibrium, blood lactic acid and pyruvic acid in albino rats after muscular exertion under conditions of normal oxygen, hypoxia and hypoxia-hypercapnia].
[Article in Italian]
Quatrini U, Licciardi A.
Albino rats of the Wistar family were subjected at three subsequent equal trials of muscular work: the first in normoxyc conditions; the second in hypoxic normobaric conditions; the third in hypoxic-hypercapnic normobaric conditions. The modifications of the lactacidemia, pyruvicemia and acid-base balance were greatest at the end of hypoxic trial. Added CO2 (2%) sensitively reduced the acidificant effects of the muscular work on the acid-base balance.

Rev Pneumol Clin. 1986;42(5):238-41.
Acid-base balance and blood lactate and pyruvate levels in albino rats bred under normobaric hypoxia or normoxia, after muscular work in a hypoxic or hypoxic-hypercapnic environment.
Quatrini U, Licciardi A.

Albino rats, Wistar family, have been raised since birth in normobaric hypoxic environment (10-12% O2). This hypoxic animal group and a normoxic animal group were subjected to muscular fatigue by forced march within revolving room. Normoxic animals were subjected to 3 spaced trials: in normoxic environment; in hypoxic normobaric environment; in the same hypoxic normobaric environment with about 2% CO2 added. Hypoxic animals were subjected to 2 spaced trials: in hypoxic normobaric environment; in the same hypoxic environment with about 2% CO2 added. At the end of every single trial, lactatemia, blood pyruvate, acid-base balance and the erythrocytic number were examined. Albino rats raised in hypoxic environment since birth, subjected to muscular work in hypoxic environment showed a smaller increase of lactatemia and a moderate variation of the acid-base balance, compared to normoxic animals in the same conditions. CO2 added to the respired hypoxic mixture during muscular work, attenuated in both animal groups, the observed modifications. Finally we found that the erythrocytes per mm3 of blood increased from the second drawing of blood.

Cor Vasa. 1981;23(5):359-65.
Heart rhythm disturbances in the inhabitants of mountainous regions.
Mirrakhimov MM, Meimanaliev TS.
The authors studied 513 males, permanently living in the high-mountain regions of Tian Shan and the Pamirs (2800 – 4000 m above sea level). A control group consisted of 404 males permanently living at low altitudes (780-900 m above sea level) in the Kemin District, Kirghiz SSR. The probands’ ages were 30-59 years. In all of them the resting electrocardiograms were recorded; 110 exercise tests were made in the high mountains, and 35 tests, at the low altitudes. The prevalence of heart rhythm disturbances was statistically significantly higher in the inhabitants of the high-mountain regions (12.1%) than in the low-altitude inhabitants (2.9%; p less than 0.0001). The most frequent disturbance was the 1st-degree a-v block (6 per cent). In the high mountains cardiac arrhythmias are usually associated with right ventricular hypertrophy, caused by high-altitude hypoxia. During exercise heart arrhythmias appeared conspicuously less frequently in the high mountain than in the low altitude inhabitants.

N Engl J Med. 1977 Mar 17;296(11):581-5.
Reduction in mortality from coronary heart disease in men residing at high altitude.
Mortimer EA Jr, Monson RR, MacMahon B.
In New Mexico, where inhabited areas vary from 914 to over 2135 m above sea level, we compared age-adjusted mortality rates for arteriosclerotic heart disease for white men and women for the years 1957-1970 in five sets of counties, grouped by altitude in 305-m (1000-foot) increments. The results show a serial decline in mortality from the lowest to the highest altitude for males but not for females. Mortality rates for males residing in the county groups higher than 1220 m in order of ascending altitude were 98, 90, 86 and 72 per cent of that for the county group below 1220-m altitude (P less than 0.0001). The results do not appear to be explained by artifacts in ascertainment, variations in ethnicity or urbanization. A possible explanation of the trend is that adjustment to residence at high altitude is incomplete and daily activities therefore represent greater exercise than when undertaken at lower altitudes.

J. Appl Physiol 1991 Apr;70(4):1720-30.
Metabolic and work efficiencies during exercise in Andean natives.
Hochachka PW, Stanley C, Matheson GO, McKenzie DC, Allen PS, Parkhouse WS
Maximum O2 and CO2 fluxes during exercise were less perturbed by hypoxia in Quechua natives from the Andes than in lowlanders. In exploring how this was achieved, we found that, for a given work rate, Quechua highlanders at 4,200 m accumulated substantially less lactate than lowlanders at sea level normoxia (approximately 5-7 vs. 10-14 mM) despite hypobaric hypoxia. This phenomenon, known as the lactate paradox, was entirely refractory to normoxia-hypoxia transitions. In lowlanders, the lactate paradox is an acclimation; however, in Quechuas, the lactate paradox is an expression of metabolic organization that did not deacclimate, at least over the 6-wk period of our study. Thus it was concluded that this metabolic organization is a developmentally or genetically fixed characteristic selected because of the efficiency advantage of aerobic metabolism (high ATP yield per mol of substrate metabolized) compared with anaerobic glycolysis. Measurements of respiratory quotient indicated preferential use of carbohydrate as fuel for muscle work, which is also advantageous in hypoxia because it maximizes the yield of ATP per mol of O2 consumed. Finally, minimizing the cost of muscle work was also reflected in energetic efficiency as classically defined (power output per metabolic power input); this was evident at all work rates but was most pronounced at submaximal work rates (efficiency approximately 1.5 times higher than in lowlander athletes). Because plots of power output vs. metabolic power input did not extrapolate to the origin, it was concluded 1) that exercise in both groups sustained a significant ATP expenditure not convertible to mechanical work but 2) that this expenditure was downregulated in Andean natives by thus far unexplained mechanisms.

J Appl Physiol. 1991 May;70(5):1963-76.
Skeletal muscle metabolism and work capacity: a 31P-NMR study of Andean natives and lowlanders.
Matheson GO, Allen PS, Ellinger DC, Hanstock CC, Gheorghiu D, McKenzie DC, Stanley C, Parkhouse WS, Hochachka PW.
Two metabolic features of altitude-adapted humans are the maximal O2 consumption (VO2max) paradox (higher work rates following acclimatization without increases in VO2max) and the lactate paradox (progressive reductions in muscle and blood lactate with exercise at increasing altitude). To assess underlying mechanisms, we studied six Andean Quechua Indians in La Raya, Peru (4,200 m) and at low altitude (less than 700 m) immediately upon arrival in Canada. The experimental strategy compared whole-body performance tests and single (calf) muscle work capacities in the Andeans with those in groups of sedentary, power-trained, and endurance-trained lowlanders. We used 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to monitor noninvasively changes in concentrations of phosphocreatine [( PCr]), [Pi], [ATP], [PCr]/[PCr] + creatine ([Cr]), [Pi]/[PCr] + [Cr], and pH in the gastrocnemius muscle of subjects exercising to fatigue. Our results indicate that the Andeans 1) are phenotypically unique with respect to measures of anaerobic and aerobic work capacity, 2) despite significantly lower anaerobic capacities, are capable of calf muscle work rates equal to those of highly trained power- and endurance-trained athletes, and 3) compared with endurance-trained athletes with significantly higher VO2max values and power-trained athletes with similar VO2max values, display, respectively, similar and reduced perturbation of all parameters related to the phosphorylation potential and to measurements of [Pi], [PCr], [ATP], and muscle pH derivable from nuclear magnetic resonance. Because the lactate paradox may be explained on the basis of tighter ATP demand-supplying coupling, we postulate that a similar mechanism may explain 1) the high calf muscle work capacities in the Andeans relative to measures of whole-body work capacity, 2) the VO2max paradox, and 3) anecdotal reports of exceptional work capacities in indigenous altitude natives.

Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1999 Jun;80(1):64-9.
Sodium bicarbonate can be used as an ergogenic aid in high-intensity, competitive cycle ergometry of 1 h duration.
McNaughton L, Dalton B, Palmer G.
The aim of this study was to determine whether a dose of 300-mg x kg(-1) body mass of sodium bicarbonate would effect a high-intensity, 1-h maximal cycle ergometer effort. Ten male, well-trained [maximum oxygen consumption 67.3 (3.3) ml x kg(-1) x min(-1), mean (SD)] volunteer cyclists acted as subjects. Each undertook either a control (C), placebo (P), or experimental (E) ride in a random, double-blind fashion on a modified, air-braked cycle ergometer, attached to a personal computer to which the work and power data was downloaded at 10 Hz. Fingertip blood was sampled at 10-min intervals throughout the exercise. Blood was also sampled at 1, 3, 5, and 10 min post-exercise. Blood was analysed for lactate, partial pressure of Carbon dioxide and oxygen, pH and plasma bicarbonate (HCO-) concentration. Randomly chosen pairs of subjects were asked to complete as much work as possible during the 60-min exercise periods in an openly competitive situation. The sodium bicarbonate had the desired effect of increasing blood HCO3- prior to the start of the test. The subjects in E completed 950.9 (81.1) kJ of work, which was significantly more (F(2,27) = 5.28, P < 0.01) than during either the C [835.5 (100.2) kJ] or P [839.0 (88.6) kJ] trials. No differences were seen in peak power or in the power:mass ratio between these three groups. The results of this study suggest that sodium bicarbonate may be used to offset the fatigue process during high-intensity, aerobic cycling lasting 60 min.

Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2003 Aug;35(8):1303-8.
Effects of sodium bicarbonate ingestion on prolonged intermittent exercise.
Price M, Moss P, Rance S.
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of sodium bicarbonate ingestion on prolonged intermittent exercise and performance.
Eight healthy male subjects (mean +/- SD: age 25.4 +/- 6.4 yr, mass 70.9 +/- 5.1 kg, height 179 +/- 7 cm, VO(2max) 4.21 +/- 0.51 L.min-1) volunteered for the study, which had received ethical approval. Subjects undertook two 30-min intermittent cycling trials (repeated 3-min blocks; 90 s at 40% VO(2max), 60 s at 60% VO(2max), 14-s maximal sprint, 16-s rest) after ingestion of either sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO(3); 0.3 or sodium chloride (NaCl; 0.045 g x kg(-1). Expired air, blood lactate (BLa), bicarbonate (HCO(3)-), and pH were measured at rest, 30 and 60 min postingestion, and during the 40% VO(2max) component of exercise (4, 10, 16, and 29 min).
After ingestion, pH increased from rest to 7.46 +/- 0.03 and 7.40 +/- 0.01 for NaHCO(3) and NaCl, respectively (main effect for time and trial; P < 0.05). Values decreased at 15 min of exercise to 7.30 +/- 0.07 and 7.21 +/- 0.06, respectively, remaining at similar levels until the end of exercise. BLa peaked at 15 min (12.03 +/- 4.31 and 10.00 +/- 2.58 mmol.L-1, for NaHCO(3) and NaCl, respectively; P > 0.05) remaining elevated until the end of exercise (P < 0.05). Peak power expressed relative to sprint 1 demonstrated a significant main effect between trials (P < 0.05). Sprint 2 increased by 11.5 +/- 5% and 1.8 +/- 9.5% for NaHCO(3) and NaCl, respectively. During NaHCO(3), sprint 8 remained similar to sprint 1 (0.2 +/- 17%), whereas a decrease was observed during NaCl (-10.0 +/- 16.0%).
The results of this study suggest that ingestion of NaHCO(3) improves sprint performance during prolonged intermittent cycling.

Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2004 Jul;36(7):1239-43.
Effects of ingestion of bicarbonate, citrate, lactate, and chloride on sprint running.
Van Montfoort MC, Van Dieren L, Hopkins WG, Shearman JP.
Ingestion of sodium bicarbonate is known to enhance sprint performance, probably via increased buffering of intracellular acidity. The goal was to compare the effect of ingestion of sodium bicarbonate with that of other potential buffering agents (sodium citrate and sodium lactate) and of a placebo (sodium chloride) on sprinting.
In a double-blind randomized crossover trial, 15 competitive male endurance runners performed a run to exhaustion 90 min after ingestion of each of the agents in the same osmolar dose relative to body mass (3.6 mosmol x kg) on separate days. The agents were packed in gelatin capsules and ingested with 750 mL of water over 90 min. During each treatment we assayed serial finger-prick blood samples for lactate and bicarbonate. A familiarization trial was used to set a treadmill speed for each runner’s set of runs. We converted changes in run time between treatments into changes in a time trial of similar duration using the critical-power model, and we estimated likelihood of practical benefit using 0.5% as the smallest worthwhile change in time-trial performance.
The mean run times to exhaustion for each treatment were: bicarbonate 82.3 s, lactate 80.2 s, citrate 78.2 s, and chloride 77.4 s. Relative to bicarbonate, the effects on equivalent time-trial time were lactate 1.0%, citrate 2.2%, and chloride 2.7% (90% likely limits +/- 2.1%). Ingested lactate and citrate both appeared to be converted to bicarbonate before the run. There were no substantial differences in gut discomfort between the buffer treatments.
Bicarbonate is possibly more beneficial to sprint performance than lactate and probably more beneficial than citrate or chloride. We recommend ingestion of sodium bicarbonate to enhance sprint performance.

J Appl Physiol. 2006 Sep;101(3):918-25. Epub 2006 Apr 20.
Effects of chronic NaHCO3 ingestion during interval training on changes to muscle buffer capacity, metabolism, and short-term endurance performance.
Edge J, Bishop D, Goodman C.
This study determined the effects of altering the H(+) concentration during interval training, by ingesting NaHCO(3) (Alk-T) or a placebo (Pla-T), on changes in muscle buffer capacity (beta m), endurance performance, and muscle metabolites. Pre- and posttraining peak O(2) uptake (V(O2 peak)), lactate threshold (LT), and time to fatigue at 100% pretraining V(O2 peak) intensity were assessed in 16 recreationally active women. Subjects were matched on the LT, were randomly placed into the Alk-T (n = eight) or Pla-T (n = eight) groups, and performed 8 wk (3 days/wk) of six to twelve 2-min cycle intervals at 140-170% of their LT, ingesting NaHCO(3) or a placebo before each training session (work matched between groups). Both groups had improvements in beta m (19 vs. 9%; P < 0.05) and V(O2 peak) (22 vs. 17%; P < 0.05) after the training period, with no differences between groups. There was a significant correlation between pretraining beta m and percent change in beta m (r = -0.70, P < 0.05). There were greater improvements in both the LT (26 vs. 15%; P = 0.05) and time to fatigue (164 vs. 123%; P = 0.05) after Alk-T, compared with Pla-T. There were no changes to pre- or postexercise ATP, phosphocreatine, creatine, and intracellular lactate concentrations, or pH(i) after training. Our findings suggest that training intensity, rather than the accumulation of H(+) during training, may be more important to improvements in beta m. The group ingesting NaHCO(3) before each training session had larger improvements in the LT and endurance performance, possibly because of a reduced metabolic acidosis during training and a greater improvement in muscle oxidative capacity.

J Strength Cond Res. 2004 May;18(2):306-10.
Combined creatine and sodium bicarbonate supplementation enhances interval swimming.
Mero AA, Keskinen KL, Malvela MT, Sallinen JM.
This study examined the effect of simultaneous supplementation of creatine and sodium bicarbonate on consecutive maximal swims. Sixteen competitive male and female swimmers completed, in a randomized order, 2 different treatments (placebo and a combination of creatine and sodium bicarbonate) with 30 days of washout period between treatments in a double-blind crossover procedure. Both treatments consisted of placebo or creatine supplementation (20 g per day) in 6 days. In the morning of the seventh day, there was placebo or sodium bicarbonate supplementation (0.3 g per kg body weight) during 2 hours before a warm-up for 2 maximal 100-m freestyle swims that were performed with a passive recovery of 10 minutes in between. The first swims were similar, but the increase in time of the second versus the first 100-m swimming time was 0.9 seconds less (p < 0.05) in the combination group than in placebo. Mean blood pH was higher (p < 0.01-0.001) in the combination group than in placebo after supplementation on the test day. Mean blood pH decreased (p < 0.05) similarly during the swims in both groups. Mean blood lactate increased (p < 0.001) during the swims, but there were no differences in peak blood lactate between the combination group (14.9 +/- 0.9 mmol.L(-1)) and placebo (13.4 +/- 1.0 mmol.L(-1)). The data indicate that simultaneous supplementation of creatine and sodium bicarbonate enhances performance in consecutive maximal swims.

Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2008 Apr;18(2):116-30.
Effects of sodium bicarbonate, caffeine, and their combination on repeated 200-m freestyle performance.
Pruscino CL, Ross ML, Gregory JR, Savage B, Flanagan TR.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO(3)), caffeine, and their combination on repeated 200-m freestyle performance. Six elite male freestyle swimmers ingested NaHCO(3) (0.3 g/kg; B), caffeine (6.2 +/- 0.3 mg/kg; C), a combination of both (B+C), and placebo (P) on 4 separate occasions before completing 2 maximal 200-m freestyle time trials (TT1 and TT2) separated by 30 min. No significant differences (p = .06) were observed for performance in TT1 (B 2:03.01 +/- 0:03.68 min, C 2:02.42 +/- 0:03.17 min, B+C 2:01.69 +/- 0:03.19 min, P 2:03.77 +/- 0:03.21 min) or TT2 (B 2:02.62 +/- 0:04.16 min, C 2:03.90 +/- 0:03.58 min, B+C 2:01.70 +/- 0:02.84 min, P 2:04.22 +/- 0:03.75 min). The drop-off in performance time from TT1 to TT2, however, was significantly greater when C was ingested than with B (-1.5%, p = .002) or B+C (-1.2%, p = .024). This is likely because of the lower blood pH and slower recovery of blood HCO(3) post-TT1 after C ingestion. These findings suggest that the ergogenic benefit of taking C alone for repeated 200-m swimming performance appears limited. When combined with NaHCO(3), however, its negative impact on repeated maximal exercise performance is reversed.

J Appl Physiol. 1977 Dec;43(6):959-64.
Effect of pH on cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses to exercise.
Jones NL, Sutton JR, Taylor R, Toews CJ.
Five male subjects performed exercise at 33, 66, and 95% of their maximum power output on three occasions in random order. Each study was preceded by a 3-h period in which capsules were taken by mouth, containing either CaCO3 (control, NH4Cl (acidosis), or NaHCO3 (alkalosis) in a dose of 0.3 g/kg body wt; preexercise blood pH was 7.38 +/- 0.015, 7.21 +/- 0.033, and 7.43 +/- 0.029, respectively. Exercise was continuous and maintained for 20 min at the two lower power outputs and for as long as possible at the highest. Compared with control (270 +/- 13 s), endurance time at the highest power output was reduced in acidosis (160 +/- 22 s) and increased in alkalosis (438 +/- 120 s). No differences were observed for central cardiovascular changes in exercise (cardiac output, frequency, or stroke volume). The respiratory changes expected from changes in blood pH were observed, with a higher alveolar ventilation in acidosis. At all power outputs arterialized venous lactate was lowest in acidosis and highest in alkalosis. Plasma glycerol and free fatty acids were lowest in acidosis. Changes in blood [HCO3-] and pH were shown to have major effects on metabolism in exercise which presumably were responsible for impaired endurance.

Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2011 Jun;21(3):189-94.
Effect of sodium bicarbonate on [HCO3-], pH, and gastrointestinal symptoms.
Carr AJ, Slater GJ, Gore CJ, Dawson B, Burke LM.
Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO₃) is often ingested at a dose of 0.3 g/kg body mass (BM), but ingestion protocols are inconsistent in terms of using solution or capsules, ingestion period, combining NaHCO₃ with sodium citrate (Na₃C₆H₅O₇), and coingested food and fluid.
To quantify the effect of ingesting 0.3 g/kg NaHCO₃ on blood pH, [HCO₃-], and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms over the subsequent 3 hr using a range of ingestion protocols and, thus, to determine an optimal protocol.
In a crossover design, 13 physically active subjects undertook 8 NaHCO₃ experimental ingestion protocols and 1 placebo protocol. Capillary blood was taken every 30 min and analyzed for pH and [HCO₃-]. GI symptoms were quantified every 30 min via questionnaire. Statistics used were pairwise comparisons between protocols; differences were interpreted in relation to smallest worthwhile changes for each variable. A likelihood of >75% was a substantial change.
[HCO₃-] and pH were substantially greater than in placebo for all other ingestion protocols at almost all time points. When NaHCO3 was coingested with food, the greatest [HCO₃-] (30.9 mmol/kg) and pH (7.49) and lowest incidence of GI symptoms were observed. The greatest incidence of GI side effects was observed 90 min after ingestion of 0.3 g/kg NaHCO₃ solution.
The changes in pH and [HCO₃-] for the 8 NaHCO₃-ingestion protocols were similar, so an optimal protocol cannot be recommended. However, the results suggest that NaHCO₃ coingested with a high-carbohydrate meal should be taken 120-150 min before exercise to induce substantial blood alkalosis and reduce GI symptoms.

Strength & Conditioning Journal: August 2012 – Volume 34 – Issue 4 – p 21
Sodium Bicarbonate Supplementation: It’s Worth Another Chance
Koziris, Lymperis (Perry)

J Strength Cond Res. 2012 Jul;26(7):1953-8. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e3182392960.
Sodium bicarbonate supplementation and ingestion timing: does it matter?
Siegler JC, Marshall PW, Bray J, Towlson C.
Although a considerable amount of literature exists on the ergogenic potential of ingesting sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) before short-term, high-intensity exercise, very little exists on optimal loading times before exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of NaHCO3 supplementation timing on repeated sprint ability (RSA). Eight men completed 3 (randomized and counterbalanced) trials of ten 10-second sprints separated by 50 seconds of active recovery (1:5 work-to-rest) on a nonmotorized treadmill. Before each trial, the subjects ingested 0.3 g·kg(-1) body weight of NaHCO3 at 60 (H1), 120 (H2), or 180 (H3) minutes before exercise. Additionally, the subjects were assessed for any side effects (gastrointestinal [GI] discomfort) from the NaHCO3 ingestion via a visual analog scale (VAS). Blood buffering was assessed using a 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures, whereas repeated sprint performance and GI discomfort were assessed via a 1-way ANOVA with repeated measures. Blood-buffering capacity was not different at preexercise times (HCO3(-) [millimoles per liter] H1: 30.2 ± 0.4, H2: 30.9 ± 0.6, H3: 31.2 ± 0.6; p > 0.74). Average speed, average power, and total distance covered progressively declined over the 10 sprints; however, there was no difference between conditions (p > 0.22). The incidence of GI discomfort was significantly higher (p < 0.05) from preingestion at all time points with the exception of 180 minutes, whereas severity was only different between 90 and 180 minutes. Ingestion times (between 60 and 180 minutes) did not influence the blood buffering or the ergogenic potential of NaHCO3 as assessed by RSA. However, VAS scores indicated that at 180 minutes postingestion, an individual is less prone to experiencing significant GI discomfort.

Eur J Appl Physiol. 2013 Jan;113(1):127-34. doi: 10.1007/s00421-012-2419-4. Epub 2012 May 19.
The physiological stress response to high-intensity sprint exercise following the ingestion of sodium bicarbonate.
Peart DJ, Kirk RJ, Hillman AR, Madden LA, Siegler JC, Vince RV.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of pre-exercise alkalosis on the physiological stress response to high-intensity exercise. Seven physically active males (age 22 ± 3 years, height 1.82 ± 0.06 m, mass 81.3 ± 8.4 kg and peak power output 300 ± 22 W) performed a repeated sprint cycle exercise following a dose of 0.3 g kg(-1) body mass of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO(3)) (BICARB), or a placebo of 0.045 g kg(-1) body mass of sodium chloride (PLAC). Monocyte-expressed heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) and plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were significantly attenuated in BICARB compared to PLAC (p = 0.04 and p = 0.039, respectively), however total anti-oxidant capacity, the ratio of oxidised to total glutathione, cortisol, interleukin 6 and interleukin 8 were not significantly induced by the exercise. In conclusion, monocyte-expressed HSP72 is significantly increased following high-intensity anaerobic exercise, and its attenuation following such exercise with the ingestion of NaHCO(3) is unlikely to be due to a decreased oxidative stress.

Sodium bicarbonate taken before strenuous exercise reduces the expression of heme oxygenase (Kirk, et al, 2012) and improves endurance. -Ray Peat, PhD

Amino Acids. 2013 Mar;44(3):903-10. doi: 10.1007/s00726-012-1419-3. Epub 2012 Oct 23.
The influence of exogenous carbohydrate provision and pre-exercise alkalosis on the heat shock protein response to prolonged interval cycling.
Peart DJ, Kirk RJ, Madden LA, Siegler JC, Vince RV.
The aim of this study was to observe the intracellular heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) and heme oxygenase-1 (HSP32) response to prolonged interval cycling following the ingestion of carbohydrates (CHO) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO(3)). Six recreationally active males (mean ± SD; age 23.2 ± 2.9 years, height 179.5 ± 5.5 cm, body mass 76.5 ± 6.8 kg, and peak power output 315 ± 36 W) volunteered to complete a 90 min interval cycling exercise on four occasions. The trials were completed in a random and blinded manner following ingestion of either: placebo and an artificial sweetener (P-P), NaHCO(3) and sweetener (B-P), placebo and CHO (P-CHO), and NaHCO(3) and CHO (B-CHO). Both HSP72 and HSP32 were significantly increased in monocytes and lymphocytes from 45 min post-exercise (p ≤ 0.039), with strong relationships between both cell types (HSP72, r = 0.83; HSP32, r = 0.89). Exogenous CHO had no influence on either HSP72 or HSP32, but the ingestion of NaHCO(3) significantly attenuated HSP32 in monocytes and lymphocytes (p ≤ 0.042). In conclusion, the intracellular stress protein response to 90 min interval exercise is closely related in monocytes and lymphocytes, and HSP32 appears to be attenuated with a pre-exercise alkalosis.

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4 Responses

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  1. combie says

    Great post. Do you think the bicarb has to be taken in one go, or will supplementing in smaller doses during the day and during exercise be as beneficial?

  2. Team FPS says

    I think its daily use is beneficial especially if you’re hypometabolic since such people tend to make lactic acid at rest and are also deficient in CO2, which makes sense since these substances oppose each other (this also makes sense in light of the research in this blog). You can monitor oxygen saturation by using an oximeter. When very calm or at high altitude an SpO2 reading of 89-94% is possible.

    Low CO2 in Hypothyroidism

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