ATP Regulates Cell Water

Also see:
PUFA Decrease Cellular Energy Production
Gerald Pollack Interviews
Gilbert Ling
Cells, Gels and the Engines of Life
The Fourth Phase of Water: Beyond Solid, Liquid, and Vapor
Protect the Mitochondria
Mitochondrial Medicine

Quotes by Ray Peat, PhD:
“The loss of control over the water in the body is the result of energy failure, and hypertension is one of the adaptations that helps to preserve or restore energy production.”

“As in other cells, ATP maintains the proper water content of cells.”

“…the essential element of stress is the inadequacy of energy to meet a challenge, and when energy is inefficient water is taken up.”

“When a muscle is fatigued, it swells, taking up sodium and water, and it is likely to become sore. Energy depletion causes any cell to take up water and sodium, and to lose potassium. An abnormal excess of potassium in the blood, especially when sodium is low, affects nerve, muscle, and secretory cells; a high level of potassium can stop the heart, for example. Cellular energy can be depleted by a combination of work, insufficient food or oxygen, or a deficiency of the hormones needed for energy production. When the swelling happens suddenly, the movement of water and sodium from the blood plasma into cells decreases the volume of blood, while the quantity of red cells remains the same, making the blood more viscous.”

“When respiration is blocked tissues take up water.”

Science 23 January 1976: Vol. 191 no. 4224 pp. 293-295
What retains water in living cells?
GN Ling, CL Walton
Three types of evidence are presented showing that the retention of cell water does not necessarily depend on the possession of an intact cell membrane. The data agree with the concept that water retention in cells is due to multilayer adsorption on proteins and that the maintenance of the normal state of water relies on the presence of adenosine triphosphate as a cardinal adsorbent, controlling the protein conformations.

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