Cardiolipin, Cytochrome Oxidase, Metabolism, & Aging
“Curing” a High Metabolic Rate with Unsaturated Fats
Fat Deficient Animals – Activity of Cytochrome Oxidase
Anti-Inflammatory Omega -9 Mead Acid (Eicosapentaenoic acid)
Errors in Nutrition: Essential Fatty Acids
Arachidonic Acid’s Role in Stress and Shock
PUFA, Development, and Allergy Incidence
PUFA Accumulation & Aging
Metabolism, Brain Size, and Lifespan in Mammals
Glucocorticoids, Cytochrome Oxidase, and Metabolism
Fat Deficient Animals – Activity of Cytochrome Oxidase
Toxicity of Stored PUFA
Quotes by Ray Peat, PhD:
“A “deficiency” of polyunsaturated fatty acids leads to altered rates of cellular regeneration and differentiation, a larger brain at birth, improved function of the immune system, decreased inflammation, decreased mortality from endotoxin poisoining, lower susceptibility to lipid peroxidation, increased basal metabolic rate and respiration, increased thyroid function, later puberty and decreases other signs of estrogen dominance.”
“I think the issue is just one of propaganda analysis, because scientifically, no one ever refuted the refutation of essentiality which occurred when the “EFA deficiency syndrome” was cured with vitamin B6. The German demonstration that spontaneous cancer was eliminated on a fat free diet preceded the really awful, incompetent study that supposedly demonstrated the essentiality of polyunsaturated fatty acids, and in the 75 years since the German study a tremendous amount of information has accumulated showing both the toxicity and the non-essentiality of the polyunsaturated fatty acids. But there has been no financial support for publicizing the protective effect of not eating vegetable oils or fish oils. To the contrary, vast amounts of money are being spent in the promotion of the various polyunsaturated fats as foods.
The animals that don’t eat them do have increased nutritional needs for vitamins and minerals, because their metabolic rate is so much greater than the PUFA-replete animals whose cardiolipin has degenerated. The recent Stanford study that shows a much greater longevity for old people who have a very high oxygen consumption capacity is consistent with the historical animal studies. PUFA-deprived animals have a very high oxygen consumption, and are resistant to practically all causes of death and disease, including trauma and poisoning.
The editorial boards of many of the journals are packed with industry flacks who are apparently willing to publish any junk that helps to sell soy oil, canola, waste fish oil, or algae oils. And researchers have to get grants to stay in business.”
“The remarkable resistance of “essential fatty acid deficient” animals to shock (Cook, et al., 1981; Li et al., 1990; Autore, et al., 1994) shows that the polyunsaturated fats are centrally involved in the maladaptive reactions of shock. The cellular changes that occur in shock–calcium retention, leakiness, reduced energy production–are seen in aging and the degenerative diseases; the stress hormones and free fatty acids tend to be chronically higher in old age, and an outstanding feature of old age is the reduced ability to tolerate stress and to recover from injuries…”
“The absence of cancer on a diet lacking unsaturated fats, the increased rate of metabolism, decreased free radical production, resistance to stress and poisoning by iron, alcohol, endotoxin, alloxan and streptozotocin, etc., improvement of brain structure and function, decreased susceptibility to blood clots, and lack of obesity and age pigment on a diet using coconut oil rather than unsaturated fats, indicates that something very simple can be done to reduce the suffering from the major degenerative diseases, and that it is very likely acting by reducing the aging process itself at its physiological core.”
“Animals that lack the unsaturated fatty acids have a higher metabolic rate and ability to use glucose, converting it to CO2 more readily, have a greater resistance to toxins (Harris, et al., 1990; even cobra venom: Morganroth, et al., 1989), including endotoxin (Li, et al., 1990)– preventing excessive vascular leakage–and to immunological damage (Takahashi, et al., 1992), and to trauma, and their neuromuscular response is accelerated while fast twitch muscles are less easily fatigued (Ayre and Hulber, 1996).”
Adv Shock Res. 1981;6:93-105.
Essential fatty acid deficient rats: a new model for evaluating arachidonate metabolism in shock.
Cook JA, Wise WC, Knapp DR, Halushka PV.
Essential fatty acid deficient (EFAD) rats are significantly more resistant to the lethal effects of S. enteritidis endotoxin (20 mg/kg, IV) than normal control rats. Compared to endotoxin-treated normal rats, EFAD rats also manifested less severe alterations of hepatic and lysosomal integrity and became less hypoglycemic. Administration of the ethyl ester of the essential fatty acid, arachidonic acid (100 mp, IP) two days prior to challenge with S. enteritidis endotoxin (20 mg/kg) in EFAD rats restored their sensitivity to endotoxin, as denoted by a 100% mortality compared to a 24% mortality (P less than 0.01) in EFAD rats. Treatment of EFAD rats with the fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid, a non-prostaglandin and thromboxane precursor, (100 mg, IP) produced significantly less (less than 0.01) mortality than ethyl-arachidonate-treated groups (ie, 40% vs 100%). The arachidonate metabolite, thromboxane B2 (TxB2), increased from nondetectable plasma levels (less than 200 pg/ml) to 2285 +/- 449 pg/ml (N = 10) at 30 min and remained elevated for 180 minutes after endotoxin administration in nondeficient rats. However, plasma TxB2 was not detectable in endotoxin-treated EFAD rats and was only slightly elevated in groups supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid (273 +/- 104 pg/ml, N = 6) after 30 minutes. In ethyl arachidonate (100 mg, IP) supplemented EFAD rats, plasma TxB2 rose to 873 +/- 204 pg/ml (N = 8), 30 min after endotoxin. Pretreatment of the ethyl-arachidonate-supplemented EFAD group with a specific thromboxane synthetase inhibitor, 7-(1-imidazolyl)-heptanoic acid (30 mg/kg, IV), significantly reduced mortality 100% to 50% (P less than 0.05) from endotoxic shock. These observations suggest a deleterious role for arachidonic acid and its conversion to TxA2 in the pathogenesis of endotoxic shock.
Circ Shock. 1990 Jun;31(2):159-70.
Resistance of essential fatty acid-deficient rats to endotoxin-induced increases in vascular permeability.
Li EJ, Cook JA, Spicer KM, Wise WC, Rokach J, Halushka PV.
Resistance to endotoxin in essential fatty acid-deficient (EFAD) rats is associated with reduced synthesis of certain arachidonic acid metabolites. It was hypothesized that EFAD rats would manifest decreased vascular permeability changes during endotoxemia as a consequence of reduced arachidonic acid metabolism. To test this hypothesis, changes in hematocrit (HCT) and mesenteric localization rate of technetium-labeled human serum albumin (99mTc-HSA) and red blood cells (99mTc-RBC) were assessed in EFAD and normal rats using gamma-camera imaging. Thirty minutes after Salmonella enteritidis endotoxin, EFAD rats exhibited less hemoconcentration as determined by % HCT than normal rats (47 +/- 2% vs. 54 +/- 1% respectively, P less than 0.01). Endotoxin caused a less severe change in permeability index in the splanchnic region in EFAD rats than in normal rats (1.2 +/- 0.6 x 10(-3)min-1 vs. 4.9 +/- 1.7 x 10(-3)min-1 respectively, P less than 0.05). In contrast to 99mTc-HSA, mesenteric localization of 99mTc-RBC was not changed by endotoxin in control or EFAD rats. Supplementation with ethyl-arachidonic acid did not enhance susceptibility of EFAD rats to endotoxin-induced splanchnic permeability to 99mTc-HSA. Leukotrienes have been implicated as mediators of increased vascular permeability in endotoxin shock. Since LTC3 formation has been reported to be increased in EFA deficiency, we hypothesized that LTC3 may be less potent than LTC4. Thus the effect of LTC3 on mean arterial pressure and permeability was compared to LTC4 in normal rats. LTC3-induced increases in peak mean arterial pressure were less than LTC4 at 10 micrograms/kg (39 +/- 5 mm Hg vs. 58 +/- 4 mm Hg respectively, P less than 0.05) and at 20 micrograms/kg (56 +/- 4 mm Hg vs. 75 +/- 2 mm Hg respectively, P less than 0.05). LY171883 (30 mg/kg), an LTD4/E4 receptor antagonist, attenuated the pressor effect of LTC4, LTD4, and LTC3. Infusion of LTC4 (4 micrograms/kg/min) in normal rats induced a rise in HCT from 44 +/- 1% to 51 +/- 1% (P less than 0.01), which was greater (P less than 0.05) than the rise induced by LTC3 (47 +/- 1% to 49 +/- 1%). The results showing that EFAD rats are resistant to endotoxin-induced increases in HCT and vascular permeability raise the possibility that this may, in part, be a result of preferential LTC3 production that is less potent than LTC4.
J Lipid Mediat Cell Signal. 1994 Mar;9(2):145-53.
Essential fatty acid-deficient diet modifies PAF levels in stomach and duodenum of endotoxin-treated rats.
Autore G, Cicala C, Cirino G, Maiello FM, Mascolo N, Capasso F.
Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is thought to play an important role in pathogenesis of endotoxin shock. Here, using essential fatty acid deficient (EFAD) rats, we have evaluated changes in mean arterial blood pressure, PAF levels and damage in both stomach and duodenum following intravenous administration of endotoxin (LPS). In EFAD rats the second phase of LPS-induced hypotension was strongly reduced. Similarly, PAF levels in stomach and duodenum of EFAD rats were also reduced and correlated to the diminished damage. Our study confirms a direct involvement of PAF in LPS-induced gastrointestinal damage.
Journal of Applied Physiology August 1989 vol. 67 no. 2 811-816
Essential fatty acid-deficient rats are resistant to oleic acid-induced pulmonary injury
H. A. Ball, J. A. Cook, K. M. Spicer, W. C. Wise, and P. V. Halushka
Because leukotrienes and prostaglandins are inflammatory mediators derived from arachidonic acid, their potential role in oleic acid-induced lung injury was evaluated in control and in essential fatty acid-deficient (EFAD) rats depleted of arachidonic acid substrate. In control rats, oleic acid (0.06 ml/kg iv) increased the pulmonary permeability index (measured by scintigraphy) from -10 +/- 13 x 10(-6) s-1 to 217 +/- 20 x 10(-6) s-1 and 118 +/- 13 x 10(-6) s-1 at 5 and 50 min (P less than 0.05), respectively. It also caused arterial hypoxemia at 30 min (P less than 0.05). Compared with saline controls, oleic acid increased bronchoalveolar lavage fluid levels of immunoreactive (i) LTC4/D4, iLTB4, (P less than 0.01), and 6-ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha (6-keto-PGF1 alpha) (P less than 0.05). In EFAD rats, oleic acid failed to significantly increase the lung permeability index at 5 and 50 min. In contrast to control rats, oleic acid failed to cause hypoxemia in the EFAD rats. Bronchoalveolar lavage levels of iLTB4 and i6-keto-PGF1 alpha after oleic acid in EFAD rats were lower compared with oleic acid controls, whereas iLTC4/D4 in the oleic acid EFAD group was not decreased. Treatment with intraperitoneal ethyl arachidonate (400 mg over 2 wk) reversed the resistance of EFAD rats such that the pulmonary edema (P less than 0.05) was evident after oleic acid. This latter group also manifested a significant (P less than 0.05) rise in the bronchoalveolar lavage levels of iLTB4 and i6-keto-PGF1 alpha. These results suggest that arachidonic acid metabolites contribute to oleic acid-induced pulmonary permeability.
Am J Physiol. 1989 Oct;257(4 Pt 2):H1192-9.
Lung injury caused by cobra venom factor is reduced in rats raised on an essential fatty acid-deficient diet.
Morganroth ML, Schoeneich SO, Till GO, Pickett W, Ward PA.
Arachidonate metabolites appear to be involved in lung injury caused by cobra venom factor (CVF)-induced complement and polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) activation. These studies were designed to assess the effects of a dietary-induced deficiency of arachidonic acid on CVF-induced lung injury. Rats raised on an essential fatty acid-deficient (EFAD) diet exhibited the expected changes in fatty acid composition including decreased plasma levels of arachidonic acid and increased levels of 5,8,11-eicosatrienoic acid. In intact rats raised on the EFAD diet, CVF-induced lung injury was attenuated. When blood and excised lungs from rats raised on the normal diet were used, CVF caused pulmonary vascular constriction and acute lung injury, as evidenced by increased 125I-labeled bovine serum albumin accumulation in lung parenchyma and alveolar lavage fluid. The CVF-induced pulmonary artery pressor response and lung injury were reduced when blood perfusate or blood perfusate and excised lungs were obtained from rats raised on the EFAD diet. The pulmonary vascular constriction and lung injury were not attenuated when the blood perfusate was obtained from rats raised on the normal diet, irrespective of whether the excised lungs were obtained from rats raised on the normal or EFAD diet. PMNs obtained from rats raised on the EFAD diet demonstrated decreased superoxide production as well as impaired random migration and chemotaxis in vitro. In contrast, beta-glucuronidase release was quantitatively similar to PMNs from control rats. These data indicate that the EFAD diet-induced attenuation of CVF-induced pulmonary hypertension and acute lung injury is due to defective effector cells in blood rather than modified pulmonary target tissue.
Am J Physiol. 1989 Nov;257(5 Pt 2):F798-807.
Essential fatty acid deficiency during acute puromycin nephrosis ameliorates late renal injury.
Diamond JR, Pesek I, Ruggieri S, Karnovsky MJ.
Puromycin aminonucleoside (PA) nephrosis is associated with a significant increase in the glomerular macrophage number during peak proteinuria. The significance of this observation remains uncertain. An essential fatty acid-deficient (EFAD) diet depletes normal rat glomeruli of resident macrophages and alters glomerular eicosanoid metabolism. In this study, we found that an EFAD diet, administered only for the duration of the acute nephrotic phase, significantly ameliorated the recurrent albuminuria, renal dysfunction, and morphological injury characteristic of the late, recurrent phase of chronic aminonucleoside nephrosis. Glomerular macrophage number, isolated glomerular thromboxane B2 production, and circulating leukocyte and monocyte counts were significantly reduced in nephrotic rats on the EFAD diet 2 wk after PA injection, which temporally corresponds to peak albuminuria. The exact mechanism(s) by which the EFAD diet conferred protection in the late phase of chronic aminonucleoside nephrosis and lowered glomerular macrophage number during the acute nephrotic phase remain to be elucidated.
J Clin Invest. 1990 Oct;86(4):1115-23.
Essential fatty acid deficiency ameliorates acute renal dysfunction in the rat after the administration of the aminonucleoside of puromycin.
Harris KP, Lefkowith JB, Klahr S, Schreiner GF.
The administration of the aminonucleoside of puromycin (PAN) to rats causes the nephrotic syndrome that is associated with an acute decline in renal function, and an interstitial infiltrate. We examined whether essential fatty acid deficiency (EFAD), which inhibits macrophage infiltration in glomerulonephritis, affects PAN-induced renal dysfunction. Both control and EFAD rats developed proteinuria that resolved over 28 d. After PAN administration, there was a prominent infiltration of macrophages in rats fed a normal diet. The infiltrate was prevented by the EFAD diet. The absence of a macrophage interstitial infiltrate was associated with a significantly higher Cin in the EFAD rats than in controls at 7 d (5.21 +/- 1.19 versus 0.39 +/- 0.08, P less than 0.002 ml/min/kg BW). In addition, CPAH fell to less than 10 ml/min/kg BW by day 7 in controls, but remained the same as normal in the EFAD. After administration of PAN to control rats, there was no increase in urinary thromboxane excretion or an increase in glomerular thromboxane production. Furthermore, the effect of EFAD could not be mimicked by the administration of a thromboxane synthase inhibitor. Irradiation-induced leukopenia in rats on a normal diet markedly improved glomerular filtration and renal blood flow in acutely nephrotic rats. EFAD prevents the interstitial cellular infiltrate and the renal ischemia associated with experimental nephrosis. The recruitment of mononuclear cells into the kidney following PAN directly contributes to the decline in renal function.
Kidney Int. 1992 May;41(5):1245-53.
Essential fatty acid deficiency normalizes function and histology in rat nephrotoxic nephritis.
Takahashi K, Kato T, Schreiner GF, Ebert J, Badr KF.
The central lipid abnormality in essential fatty acid deficiency (EFAD) is the lack of availability of arachidonic acid. To examine the role of total eicosanoid’s biosyntheses in the pathology and pathophysiology of glomerulonephritis, EFAD was induced in weanling rats, which were then subjected to antiglomerular basement membrane antibody (NTS)-induced injury in adulthood. Glomerular dynamics (as assessed by micropuncture), quantitative histology, and eicosanoid generation rates were measured at two hours and two weeks post-NTS, and compared to those of standard diet-fed (STD) controls. Two hours post-NTS, and despite the occurrence of proteinuria in both EFAD and STD animals, glomerular dynamics were essentially normal in EFAD rats, whereas STD animals had reduced values for glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal plasma flow rate (RPF). At two weeks, severe histologic changes were observed in STD animals including mesangial and stalk hypercellularity, moderate sclerosis, and interstitial nephritis, coupled with heavy proteinuria and reduced GFR and RPF. In dramatic contrast, EFAD rats displayed totally normal glomerular structures and functions. In parallel, glomerular generation rates of prostaglandin E2 and thromboxane A2 were suppressed markedly in EFAD rats. Thus, EFAD confers complete protection against the histopathologic and functional sequelae of immune-initiated injury in the glomerulus. The data suggest that the initial wave of complement-induced neutrophil infiltration (with resultant proteinuria) is not sufficient to perpetuate injury into the more destructive chronic phases. The results provide strong impetus for the design of more specific interventional therapies targeting the various enzymes and products of arachidonic acid metabolism in the attempts to control glomerular inflammation.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1995 Jan;272(1):469-75.
Acetic acid-induced colitis in normal and essential fatty acid deficient rats.
Mascolo N, Izzo AA, Autore G, Maiello FM, Di Carlo G, Capasso F.
Eicosanoids and platelet-activating factor (PAF) production increases in experimental colitis. Both eicosanoids and PAF seem to arise from similar membrane phospholipids. To support both these suggestions we have investigated whether a fat-free diet, which should alter production of eicosanoids and PAF, affects experimental colitis. Essential fatty acid deficient (EFAD) rats were obtained by putting 4-week-old animals on a fat-free diet for 3 months. Experimental colitis was induced by a single intracolonic administration of 2 ml of 4% acetic acid. One to seven days later the animals were sacrificed and the colon removed to assess macroscopically and histologically intestinal damage. Eicosanoids and PAF levels were also measured in the mucosa scrapings by specific radioimmunoassay. The injury to the colon was more evident in control rats compared with EFAD rats. Besides colonic tissue of control rats showed a highly significant increase of PGE2, LTB4 and PAF, compared with levels in EFAD rats. Our results indicate that fat-free diet reduces tissue damage, and at the same time PGE2, LTB4 and PAF colonic content.
Pancreas. 1995 Jul;11(1):26-37.
Essential fatty acid deficiency prevents autoimmune diabetes in nonobese diabetic mice through a positive impact on antigen-presenting cells and Th2 lymphocytes.
Benhamou PY, Mullen Y, Clare-Salzler M, Sangkharat A, Benhamou C, Shevlin L, Go VL.t
Protective effects of essential fatty acid deficiency (EFAD) on autoimmunity were shown in rodents. Our goal was to investigate the mechanisms of EFAD effects on autoimmune diabetes in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. Weanling female mice were randomized between a control diet group and an EFAD diet group, and the development of diabetes and immune response was determined over a 6-month period. The cumulative incidence of diabetes was significantly reduced in the EFAD group (20 vs 68.75% in the control group; p < 0.01), without affecting the insulitis process. Splenocyte reactivity to phytohemagglutinin and anti-CD3 antibody was significantly increased in EFAD-fed mice (p < 0.01). The EFAD group also exhibited a dramatic increase in baseline (29-fold) and antigen-presenting cell (APC)-stimulated (10-fold) T cell responses in syngeneic mixed leukocyte reaction. These responses were associated with a marked increase in splenocyte interleukin-4 (IL-4) production, a reduction in interferon-gamma production, and a down-regulation of CD45RB isoform expression. Macrophages in the EFAD group exerted a reduced suppressive effect on concanavalin A-induced splenocyte proliferation and were found to release increased amounts of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and IL-1 and reduced amounts of prostaglandin E2. These results clearly demonstrate that EFAD prevents diabetes in NOD mice. The data suggest an enhanced activity of Th2-like cells, as well as an effect on APC activity linked to alteration in eicosanoid metabolism.
Acta Diabetol. 1995 Jun;32(2):125-30.
Essential fatty acid deficiency prevents multiple low-dose streptozotocin-induced diabetes in naive and cyclosporin-treated low-responder murine strains.
Wright JR Jr, Fraser RB, Kapoor S, Cook HW.
Multiple i.p. injections of low-dose streptozotocin (40 mg/kg) produce insulitis, beta cell destruction, and diabetes in male CD-1 mice. Recent data also suggest that macrophages figure in the low-dose streptozotocin model. Because other recent studies have shown that essential fatty acid deficiency prevents autoimmune nephritis in mice, decreases the number of resident Ia-positive glomerular macrophages, and decreases the elicitation of macrophages into the glomerulus in inflammation, we examined the effect of essential fatty acid deficiency on the incidence and severity of insulitis and diabetes in CD-1 mice treated with low-dose streptozotocin. Streptozotocin-treated mice on the control diet uniformly developed diabetes (19/19). Essential fatty acid-deficient mice treated with streptozotocin did not develop diabetes (1/13). Mean plasma glucose levels for the control and essential fatty acid-deficient mice were 384.5 +/- 23.6 and 129.1 +/- 15.5 mg/dl, respectively, at the end of 1 month. To discern whether essential fatty acid deficiency prevented the streptozotocin-induced beta cell injury or the inflammatory response to injured beta cells, mice were repleted with daily injections of 99% pure methyl linoleate beginning 3 days after the last streptozotocin injection. These mice also quickly developed severe (3/4) or mild (1/4) diabetes. Histologic examination of the pancreata of control mice or repleted mice showed marked insulitis and beta cell destruction; in contrast, the pancreata of essential fatty acid-deficient mice showed preservation of beta cells and only focal mild peri-insulitis. Essential fatty acid deficiency thus prevents the insulitis and resultant diabetes in low-dose streptozotocin-treated CD-1 mice, suggesting a central role for macrophages and lipid mediators in this autoimmunity model.
Lipids. 1997 Sep;32(9):979-88.
Modulation of adjuvant-induced arthritis by dietary arachidonic acid in essential fatty acid-deficient rats.
Chinn KS, Welsch DJ, Salsgiver WJ, Mehta A, Raz A, Obukowicz MG.
Controlled feeding of linoleic acid (LA) or arachidonic acid (AA) to essential fatty acid-deficient (EFAD) rats was used to define the relationship between dietary AA and the inflammatory response evoked during adjuvant-induced arthritis. Based on energy percentage, EFAD rats were fed AA at the human daily equivalent (1x; 5.5 mg/day) or 10 times that amount (10x; 55 mg/day) or, alternatively 0.5x of LA (273 mg/day). Feeding of 0.5x LA restored the plasma level of AA to that in chow-fed controls. In contrast, feeding of 1x AA only partially restored the plasma level of AA; 10x AA was required to fully replete AA. In parallel to the degree of repletion of AA in plasma, there were accompanying decreases in the levels of palmitoleic acid, oleic acid, and Mead acid. Compared to rats fed the standard laboratory chow diet (Control), edema in the primary hind footpads was decreased by 87% in EFAD, 71% in EFAD + 1x AA, 45% in EFAD + 10x AA, and 30% in EFAD + 0.5x LA. The decrease in edema in the footpads of EFAD rats was nearly identical to the decrease in edema in the footpads of Control rats dosed with indomethacin. Hind footpad edema correlated with the final AA plasma level and eicosanoid levels extracted from hind footpad tissue, but not with neutrophil infiltration. The data showed that 0.5x LA and 10x AA, but not 1x AA, could quickly replete AA, accompanied by the synthesis of AA-derived eicosanoids and restoration of edema. These results suggest that in humans consumption of the average daily amount of AA without concurrent ingestion of LA would not alleviate an EFAD state.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1993 May;120(1):72-9.
Essential fatty acid deficiency in cultured human keratinocytes attenuates toxicity due to lipid peroxidation.
Wey HE, Pyron L, Woolery M.
Human keratinocytes are commonly grown in culture with a serum-free medium. Under these conditions, keratinocytes become essential fatty acid deficient (EFAD), as determined by gas chromatographic analysis of cell phospholipid fatty acid composition. Exposure of EFAD keratinocytes for 2 hr to concentrations of t-butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP) up to 2 mM did not result in toxicity assessed by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and only a small indication of lipid peroxidation assessed by the release of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS). Addition of 10 microM linoleic acid (LA) to serum-free medium alleviated the EFAD condition by increasing the phospholipid content of LA and its elongation and desaturation products, arachidonic acid and docosatetraenoic acid. Exposure of LA-supplemented keratinocytes to tBHP resulted in significant LDH (at 1 and 2 mM tBHP) and TBARS (tBHP concentration dependent) release. TBARS release was also significantly elevated in unexposed LA-supplemented keratinocytes (basal release). Co-supplementation with the antioxidant, alpha-tocopherol succinate (TS) prevented tBHP (1 mM)-induced LDH release in LA-supplemented cultures. TS supplementation also attenuated the effect of tBHP on TBARS release, but when compared to TS-supplemented EFAD cultures, LA supplementation still led to increased tBHP-induced TBARS release. Keratinocyte cultures are potentially useful as an alternative to animals in toxicology research and testing. It is important, however, that the cell model provide a response to toxic insult similar to that experienced in vivo. Our results suggest that fatty acid and antioxidant nutrition of cultured keratinocytes are important parameters in mediating the toxic effects of lipid peroxidation.
J Immunol. 1990 Sep 1;145(5):1523-9.
Manipulation of the acute inflammatory response by dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid modulation.
Lefkowith JB, Morrison A, Lee V, Rogers M.
Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid modulation has been used as an anti-inflammatory strategy in experimental models of disease as well as in clinical trials. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of manipulating dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids, the in vivo effects of essential fatty acid (EFA) deficiency and (n-3) fatty acid supplementation were contrasted using a model of acute inflammation induced by the i.p. injection of zymosan into mice. Both diets led to a substantial decrease in tissue (n-6) fatty acid content. EFA deficiency was also characterized by the accumulation of (n-9) fatty acids, particularly 20:3 (n-9), the fatty acid that uniquely characterizes the deficiency state. Dietary (n-3) fatty acid supplementation led instead to marked increases in (n-3) fatty acids, especially 20:5 (n-3). With respect to the antiinflammatory effects of the two diets, EFA deficiency, but not (n-3) fatty acid supplementation, depleted levels of resident peritoneal macrophages. EFA deficiency was also more effective than (n-3) fatty acid supplementation in inhibiting the influx of polymorphonuclear neutrophils in response to zymosan. The effect of the two diets on the in vivo generation of leukotriene(LT)B also differed markedly. EFA deficiency completely inhibited the synthesis of LTB. Dietary (n-3) fatty acid supplementation, in contrast, reduced the production of LTB4 by only 50%. With (n-3) fatty acid supplementation LTB5 was produced. The more modest effect of (n-3) fatty acid supplementation in decreasing LTB4 generation was not due to blockade of the cyclooxygenase pathway. EFA deficiency, but not (n-3) fatty acid supplementation, was associated with the decreased synthesis of thromboxane. Although dietary fatty acid modulation has been shown to diminish platelet activating factor (PAF) synthesis, studies using the PAF receptor blocker, L659989, established that PAF was not a significant factor in the elicitation of leukocytes in this model of inflammation. In summary, the anti-inflammatory effect of EFA deficiency was more marked that that of dietary (n-3) fatty acid supplementation in acute inflammation. This difference in anti-inflammatory potential appeared to be due to either the greater effect of EFA deficiency in decreasing levels of resident peritoneal macrophages or in suppressing the in vivo generation of LTB4.
The FASEB Journal (impact factor: 6.4). 04/1991; 5(3):344-53.
Unique fatty acid composition of normal cartilage: discovery of high levels of n-9 eicosatrienoic acid and low levels of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids.
H D Adkisson, F S Risener, P P Zarrinkar, M D Walla, W W Christie, R E Wuthier
We report here the finding that normal, young cartilages, in distinction from all other tissues examined, have unusually high levels of n-9 eicosatrienoic (20:3 cis-delta 5,8,11) acid and low levels of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6 PUFA). This pattern is identical to that found in tissues of animals subjected to prolonged depletion of nutritionally essential n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (EFA). This apparent deficiency is consistently observed in cartilage of all species so far studied (young chicken, fetal calf, newborn pig, rabbit, and human), even though levels of n-6 PUFA in blood and all other tissues is normal. The n-9 20:3 acid is particularly abundant in phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, and the free fatty acid fractions from the young cartilage. Several factors appear to contribute to the reduction in n-6 PUFA and the appearance of high levels of the n-9 20:3 acid in cartilage: 1) limited access to nutritional sources of EFA due to the impermeability and avascularity of cartilage, 2) rapid metabolism of n-6 PUFA to prostanoids by chondrocytes, and 3) a unique fatty acid metabolism by cartilage. Evidence is presented that each of these factors contributes. Previously, EFA deficiency has been shown to greatly suppress the inflammatory response of leukocytes and rejection of tissues transplanted into allogeneic recipients. Because eicosanoids, which are derived from EFA, have been implicated in the inflammatory responses associated with arthritic disease, reduction of n-6 PUFA and accumulation of the n-9 20:3 acid in cartilage may be important for maintaining normal cartilage structure.
LIPIDS Volume 31, Number 8, 829-837, DOI: 10.1007/BF02522978
Effect of dietary n-9 eicosatrienoic acid on the fatty acid composition of plasma lipid fractions and tissue phospholipids
L. G. Cleland, M. A. Neumann, R. A. Gibson, T. Hamazaki, K. Akimoto and M. J. James
n-9 Eicosatrienoic acid (ETrA), also known as Mead acid, is a minor fatty acid in essential fatty acid (EFA)-sufficient healthy subjects but is found at increased levels in EFA deficiency. This study examined the influence of dietary ETrA from a biological source on plasma and tissue ETrA. A synthetic fat-free diet was prepared to which was added Mut 48 oil which contains 19% ETrA (wt%) as well as other n-9 fatty acids. Blends of vegetable oils were used to achieve overall diets with 5% fat (wt%) and varying amounts of ETrA at two different dietary levels of linoleic acid (LA), approximately 4.4 and 19% of total fatty acids. These diets were fed to 5-week-old Dark Agouti rats for four weeks. Plasma lipid fractions and liver, spleen, and peritoneal exudate (PE) cells were analyzed for fatty acid composition. ETrA was present at up to 20% total fatty acids in plasma triglyceride, cholesterol ester, and phospholipid fractions. ETrA also accumulated to substantial levels in phospholipids of liver and spleen (up to 15% of total fatty acids) and PE cells (up to 11%). ETrA was found in plasma and tissue phospholipids in proportion to the amount of ETrA present in the diet. The incorporation was reduced in diets with higher LA content compared to diets containing similar amounts of ETrA but lower LA. All rats remained apparently healthy, and histological survey of major organs revealed no abnormality. While the long-term implications for health of ingestion of diets rich in ETrA remain to be established, rats appear to tolerate high levels of dietary ETrA without adverse effects. Dietary enrichment with ETrA warrants further investigation for possible beneficial effects in models of inflammation and autoimmunity, as well as in other conditions in which mediators derived from n-6 fatty acids can affect homeostasis adversely.
J Nutr. 1996 Jun;126(6):1534-40.
Dietary (n-9) eicosatrienoic acid from a cultured fungus inhibits leukotriene B4 synthesis in rats and the effect is modified by dietary linoleic acid.
Cleland LG, Gibson RA, Neumann MA, Hamazaki T, Akimoto K, James MJ.
Eicosatrienoic acid (ETrA) is the (n-9) homologue of (n-6) arachidonic acid (AA) and (n-3) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). ETrA can be synthesized endogeneously, but tissue levels are normally undetectable except in essential fatty acid (EFA) deficiency. An ETrA-rich oil extracted from a cultured fungus was used to prepare diets which had varying levels of ETrA (0-8 g/kg diet) in combination with one of two levels of linoleic acid (LA, 2.2 or 9.5 g/kg diet). All diets were sufficient in essential fatty acids. Groups of rats were fed these diets for 4 wk after which leucocyte fatty acid content and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) synthesis were measured. The influence of dietary LA on ETrA accumulation in cells was studied and correlations with LTB4 synthesis determined. ETrA was efficiently incorporated into peritoneal exudate cell (PEC) phospholipids with no evident saturation being observed with levels up to 10 mol/100 mol total fatty acids in peritoneal exudate cells. Cellular ETrA levels were lower (P < 0.001) in rats fed the higher level of LA. ETrA accumulation in peritoneal exudate cells correlated (r(2) = 0.63, P < 0.05) with reduced LTB4 synthesis which was attributable to LTA hydrolase inhibition. Thus, dietary ETrA from a biological source can accumulate in leucocytes and suppress inflammatory eicosanoid synthesis. The findings justify further studies into the biochemical and anti-inflammatory effects of dietary ETrA, which could be incorporated into palatable food additives.
J Exp Med. 1993 Dec 1;178(6):2261-5.
Effect of dietary supplementation with n-9 eicosatrienoic acid on leukotriene B4 synthesis in rats: a novel approach to inhibition of eicosanoid synthesis.
James MJ, Gibson RA, Neumann MA, Cleland LG.
Studies were undertaken to assess the biochemical effects of dietary supplementation with n-9 eicosatrienoic acid (ETrA), an arachidonic acid analogue that is normally present in cell membranes at very low levels but is raised in the presence of essential fatty acid deficiency (EFAD). The incorporation of dietary ETrA into rat neutrophils and its effect on A23187-stimulated 5-lipoxygenase metabolism in these cells was examined; in addition, the effect of ETrA was compared with that of another arachidonic acid analogue, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), which is known to accumulate in cell membranes and inhibit synthesis of leukotriene B4 (LTB4) a product of the 5-lipoxygenase metabolic pathway. Rats were fed a defined diet that was sufficient in essential fatty acids and that contained EPA or ETrA (0.014% of energy) or no added fatty acid, for 3 wk. In the cells from ETrA-fed rats, LTB4 synthesis was inhibited relative to control values, but synthesis of the other products of 5-lipoxygenase metabolism, 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE) and the all-trans isomers of LTB4, were not inhibited. This pattern indicates inhibition of LTA hydrolase in ETrA-fed rats. In EPA-fed rats, there was inhibition of LTB4 and the all-trans isomers of LTB4, but there was no inhibition of 5-HETE. This pattern indicates inhibition of LTA synthase in EPA-fed rats. The results establish that dietary ETrA effectively inhibits synthesis of the inflammatory mediator, LTB4, and suggest that ETrA may confer antiinflammatory benefits similar to those observed with EFAD or dietary fish oil (which contains EPA). Because ETrA is substantially less unsaturated than EPA, it can be expected to have greater chemical stability, which could be an important practical advantage when used as a dietary constituent or supplement.
Lipids. 1994 Mar;29(3):151-5.
Inhibition of human neutrophil leukotriene B4 synthesis in essential fatty acid deficiency: role of leukotriene A hydrolase.
Cleland LG, James MJ, Proudman SM, Neumann MA, Gibson RA.
A female subject dependent on long-term total parenteral nutrition developed an aversion and noncompliance to a prescribed weekly lipid infusion designed to meet essential fatty acid (EFA) requirements. Fatty acids (FA) in the subject’s plasma and isolated peripheral blood neutrophils were analyzed in search of biochemical evidence of EFA deficiency. Neutrophil 5-lipoxygenase metabolism was examined to assess the possible effects of EFA deficiency on neutrophil eicosanoid metabolism. EFA deficiency was confirmed by marked depletion of linoleic acid (18:2n-6) and accumulation of eicosatrienoic acid (ETrA; 20:3n-9) in plasma and neutrophil phospholipids. In the neutrophils, ETrA comprised 5.2% of phospholipid FA (normal reference values < 0.1%), and arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4n-6) comprised 8.6% of phospholipid FA (normal reference range 10-16%). When stimulated by A23187 in vitro on three separate occasions, the subject's neutrophils displayed impaired synthesis of leukotriene B4 (LTB4), but produced normal amounts of 5-hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acid and all-trans isomers of LTB4 formed nonenzymatically from leukotriene A4 (LTA4). This pattern of synthesis suggested inhibition of LTA hydrolase and was also seen in neutrophils from healthy subjects by addition of exogenous ETrA in vitro. Comparative studies of the effects of ETrA and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) on neutrophils in vitro suggested that ETrA is the more potent inhibitor. Accumulation of ETrA, rather than depletion of AA, appears principally responsible for the observed impairment of neutrophil LTB4 synthesis seen in this EFA-deficient subject.
Science. 1988 May 20;240(4855):1032-3.
Essential fatty acid depletion of renal allografts and prevention of rejection.
Schreiner GF, Flye W, Brunt E, Korber K, Lefkowith JB.
A central hypothesis in transplantation biology is that resident leukocytes expressing class II histocompatibility antigens may determine the immunogenicity of an organ. By means of a novel method to deplete the kidney of resident leukocytes, essential fatty acid deficiency (EFAD), this hypothesis was tested in an intact, vascular organ. Kidneys subjected to EFAD and thus depleted of resident Ia-positive macrophages survived and functioned when transplanted across a major histocompatibility antigen barrier in the absence of immunosuppression of the recipient. Control allografts were rejected promptly. Allografts from donors subjected to EFAD normalized their lipid composition and were repopulated with host macrophages by 5 days. Administration of Ia-positive cells at the time of transplantation established that the resident leukocyte depletion induced by EFAD was responsible for the protective effect. These observations may provide insights into the mechanisms underlying tissue immunogenicity and the population of normal tissues with resident leukocytes.
Metabolism. 2012 Mar;61(3):395-406. Epub 2011 Sep 23.
Arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid supplemented to an essential fatty acid-deficient diet alters the response to endotoxin in rats.
Ling PR, Malkan A, Le HD, Puder M, Bistrian BR.
This study examined fatty acid profiles, triene-tetraene ratios (20:3n9/20:4n6), and nutritional and inflammatory markers in rats fed an essential fatty acid-deficient (EFAD) diet provided as 2% hydrogenated coconut oil (HCO) alone for 2 weeks or with 1.3 mg of arachidonic acid (AA) and 3.3 mg of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (AA + DHA) added to achieve 2% fat. Healthy controls were fed an AIN 93M diet (AIN) with 2% soybean oil. The HCO and AA + DHA diets led to significant reductions of linoleic acid, α-linolenic acid, and AA (20:4n6) and increases in Mead acid (20:3n9) in plasma and liver compared with the AIN diet; but the triene-tetraene levels remained well within normal. However, levels of 20:3n9 and 20:4n6 were lower in liver phospholipids in the AA + DHA than in HCO group, suggesting reduced elongation and desaturation in ω-9 and -6 pathways. The AA + DHA group also had significantly lower levels of 18:1n9 and 16:1n7 as well as 18:1n9/18:0 and 16:1n7/16:0 than the HCO group, suggesting inhibition of stearyl-Co A desaturase-1 activity. In response to lipopolysaccharide, the levels of tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-6 were significantly lower with HCO, reflecting reduced inflammation. The AA + DHA group had higher levels of IL-6 and C-reactive protein than the HCO group but significantly lower than the AIN group. However, in response to endotoxin, interleukin-6 was higher with AA + DHA than with AIN. Feeding an EFAD diet reduces baseline inflammation and inflammatory response to endotoxin long before the development of EFAD, and added AA + DHA modifies this response.
J Immunol. 1989 Nov 15;143(10):3192-9.
The antiinflammatory effects of essential fatty acid deficiency in experimental glomerulonephritis. The modulation of macrophage migration and eicosanoid metabolism.
Schreiner GF, Rovin B, Lefkowith JB.
Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid modulation exerts a beneficial effect in immune-mediated glomerulonephritis. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon, the effects of essential fatty acid (EFA) deficiency on the heterologous phase of nephrotoxic nephritis in rats (induced by the injection of a rabbit antiglomerular basement membrane antibody) were studied. The heterologous phase of nephrotoxic nephritis was characterized by an invasion of leukocytes into the glomerulus. Polymorphonuclear neutrophils predominated early on (3 h), whereas macrophages predominated at 24 and 72 h. EFA deficiency selectively prevented the influx of macrophages into the glomerulus. The invasion of polymorphonuclear neutrophils, in contrast, was unaffected. The influx of leukocytes into the glomerulus during nephritis was accompanied by a marked enhancement (10- to 40-fold) in glomerular thromboxane and leukotriene B4 production. EFA deficiency largely attenuated this change. Renal dysfunction during the heterologous phase of nephritis was manifested as azotemia, polyuria, sodium retention, and proteinuria. With EFA deficiency, polyuria, azotemia, and sodium retention were not seen. Proteinuria was reduced by approximately 85%. To address whether the lack of macrophage migration into the glomerulus in the context of nephritis with EFA deficiency might be due to a functional defect in macrophage migration, the chemotactic responsiveness of EFA-deficient macrophages was examined. EFA-deficient macrophages displayed normal chemotactic migration toward activated C. In sum, EFA deficiency prevents the invasion of macrophages into the glomerulus in nephrotoxic nephritis and attenuates the accompanying metabolic and functional alterations, but does not affect macrophage chemotactic responsiveness. Alterations in macrophage elicitation and lipid mediator generation by inflamed glomeruli thus appear to be central to the salutary effect of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid modification on glomerulonephritis.
J Appl Physiol. 1996 Feb;80(2):464-71.
Effects of changes in dietary fatty acids on isolated skeletal muscle functions in rats.
Ayre KJ, Hulbert AJ.
The effects of manipulating dietary levels of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids on the function of isolated skeletal muscles in male Wistar rats were examined. Three isoenergetic diets were used: an essential fatty acid-deficient diet (EFAD), a diet high in essential (n-6) fatty acids [High (n-6)], and a diet enriched with essential (n-3) fatty acids [High (n-3)]. After 9 wk, groups of rats on each test diet were fed a stock diet of laboratory chow for a further 6 wk. Muscle function was examined by using a battery of five tests for soleus (slow twitch) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL; fast twitch). Tests included single muscle twitches, sustained tetanic contractions, posttetanic potentiation, sustained high-frequency stimulation, and intermittent low-frequency stimulation. Results for muscles from the High (n-6) and High (n-3) groups were very similar. However, the EFAD diet resulted in significantly lower muscular tensions and reduced response times compared with the High (n-6) and High (n-3) diets. Peak twitch tension in soleus muscles was 16-21% less in the EFAD group than in the High (n-6) and High (n-3) groups, respectively [analysis of variance (ANOVA), P < 0.01). During high-frequency stimulation, EDL muscles from the EFAD rats fatigued 32% more quickly (ANOVA, P < 0.01)]. Also, twitch contraction and half-relaxation times were significantly 5-7% reduced in the EFAD group (ANOVA, P < 0.01). During intermittent low-frequency stimulation, soleus muscles from the EFAD group generated 25-28% less tension than did the other groups (ANOVA, P < 0.01), but in EDL muscles from the EFAD group, endurance was 20% greater than in the High (n-6) group (ANOVA, P < 0.05). After 6 wk on the stock diet, there were no longer any differences between the dietary groups. Manipulation of dietary fatty acids results in significant, but reversible, effects in muscles of rats fed an EFAD diet.
“A “deficiency” of polyunsaturated fat decreases the expression of the enzyme that synthesizes serotonin (McNamara, et al., 2009).” -Ray Peat, PhD
J Psychiatr Res. 2009 Mar;43(6):656-63. Epub 2008 Nov 4.
Omega-3 fatty acid deficiency during perinatal development increases serotonin turnover in the prefrontal cortex and decreases midbrain tryptophan hydroxylase-2 expression in adult female rats: dissociation from estrogenic effects.
McNamara RK, Able J, Liu Y, Jandacek R, Rider T, Tso P, Lipton JW.
A dysregulation in central serotonin neurotransmission and omega-3 fatty acid deficiency have been implicated in the pathophysiology of major depression. To determine the effects of omega-3 fatty acid deficiency on indices of serotonin neurotransmission in the adult rat brain, female rats were fed diets with or without the omega-3 fatty acid precursor alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) during perinatal (E0-P90), post-weaning (P21-P90), and post-pubescent (P60-130) development. Ovariectomized (OVX) rats and OVX rats with cyclic estrogen treatment were also examined. Serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) content, and fatty acid composition were determined in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), and tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH-2), serotonin transporter, and 5-HT(1A) autoreceptor mRNA expression were determined in the midbrain. ALA deficiency during perinatal (-62%, p=0.0001), post-weaning (-34%, p=0.0001), and post-pubertal (-10%, p=0.0001) development resulted in a graded reduction in adult PFC docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) composition. Relative to controls, perinatal DHA-deficient rats exhibited significantly lower PFC 5-HT content (-65%, p=0.001), significant greater 5-HIAA content (+15%, p=0.046), and a significant greater 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio (+73%, p=0.001). Conversely, post-weaning DHA-deficient rats exhibited significantly greater PFC 5-HT content (+12%, p=0.03), no change in 5-HIAA content, and a significantly smaller 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio (-9%, p=0.01). Post-pubertal DHA-deficient and OXV rats did not exhibit significant alterations in PFC 5-HT or 5-HIAA content. Only perinatal DHA-deficient rats exhibited a significant reduction in midbrain TPH-2 mRNA expression (-29%, p=0.03). These preclinical data support a causal link between perinatal omega-3 fatty acid deficiency and reduced central serotonin synthesis in adult female rats that is independent of ovarian hormones including estrogen.
“Supplementing thyroid hormone increases mitochondrial cardiolipin (Paradies and Ruggiero, 1988). Eliminating the polyunsaturated fats from the diet increases mitochondrial respiration (Rafael, et al., 1984).” -Ray Peat, PhD
J Nutr. 1984 Feb;114(2):255-62.
The effect of essential fatty acid deficiency on basal respiration and function of liver mitochondria in rats.
Rafael J, Patzelt J, Schäfer H, Elmadfa I.
Rats were fed a diet poor (0.05%) in essential fatty acids (EFA) with hydrogenated coconut oil as fat component, or a control diet containing 4% of the total energy intake in the form of linoleic acid. Effects of dietary EFA deficiency were investigated during a period of 2-30 weeks. Growth retardation becomes significant after 4 weeks of deficiency and attains about 25% when the deficiency is maintained for longer than 12 weeks. Respiration, body weight and age of EFA-deficient rats and controls are in a nonlinear relationship. Basal respiration in relation to the body weight is significantly increased by EFA deficiency; it is unchanged when related to total animals under the employed experimental conditions. Oxidative phosphorylation in isolated liver mitochondria is unaffected by EFA deficiency, i.e., the increased metabolic rate of EFA-deficient rats, related to the body weight, cannot be explained from impaired functional integrity of the inner mitochondrial membrane. Respiratory chain enzyme activities in mitochondria from heart and skeletal muscle and specific amounts of mitochondria in these tissues are unchanged by EFA deficiency.