PUFA Breakdown Products Depress Mitochondrial Respiration

Also see:
PUFA, Fish Oil, and Alzheimers
Estrogen, Glutamate, & Free Fatty Acids
Randle Cycle
PUFA Decrease Cellular Energy Production
Free Fatty Acids Suppress Cellular Respiration

Biochemistry. 1998 Jan 13;37(2):552-7.
Inhibition of NADH-linked mitochondrial respiration by 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal.
Humphries KM, Yoo Y, Szweda LI.
During the progression of certain degenerative conditions, including myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, mitochondria are a source of increased free-radical generation and exhibit declines in respiratory function(s). It has therefore been suggested that oxidative damage to mitochondrial components plays a critical role in the pathology of these processes. Polyunsaturated fatty acids of membrane lipids are prime molecular targets of free-radical damage. A major product of lipid peroxidation, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), is highly cytotoxic and can readily react with and damage protein. In this study, the effects of HNE on intact cardiac mitochondria were investigated to gain insight into potential mechanisms by which free radicals mediate mitochondrial dysfunction. Exposure of mitochondria to micromolar concentrations of HNE caused rapid declines in NADH-linked but not succinate-linked state 3 and uncoupled respiration. The activity of complex I was unaffected by HNE under the conditions of our experiments. Loss of respiratory activity reflected the inability of HNE-treated mitochondria to meet NADH demand during maximum rates of O2 consumption. HNE exerted its effects on intact mitochondria by inactivating alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase. These results therefore identify a potentially important mechanism by which free radicals bring about declines in mitochondrial respiration.

J Neurochem. 1999 Apr;72(4):1617-24.
4-Hydroxy-2(E)-nonenal inhibits CNS mitochondrial respiration at multiple sites.
Picklo MJ, Amarnath V, McIntyre JO, Graham DG, Montine TJ.
A destructive cycle of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction is proposed in neurodegenerative disease. Lipid peroxidation, one outcome of oxidative challenge, can lead to the formation of 4-hydroxy-2(E)-nonenal (HNE), a lipophilic alkenal that forms stable adducts on mitochondrial proteins. In this study, we characterized the effects of HNE on brain mitochondrial respiration. We used whole rat brain mitochondria and concentrations of HNE comparable to those measured in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Our results showed that HNE inhibited respiration at multiple sites. Complex I-linked and complex II-linked state 3 respirations were inhibited by HNE with IC50 values of approximately 200 microM HNE. Respiration was apparently diminished owing to the inhibition of complex III activity. In addition, complex II activity was reduced slightly. The lipophilicity and adduction characteristics of HNE were responsible for the effects of HNE on respiration. The inhibition of respiration was not prevented by N-acetylcysteine or aminoguanidine. Studies using mitochondria isolated from porcine cerebral cortex also demonstrated an inhibition of complex I- and complex II-linked respiration. Thus, in neurodegenerative disease, oxidative stress may impair mitochondrial respiration through the production of HNE.

Biochim Biophys Acta. 2001 Feb 14;1535(2):145-52.
Acrolein inhibits respiration in isolated brain mitochondria.
Picklo MJ, Montine TJ.
Lipid peroxidation is elevated in diseased regions of brain in several neurodegenerative diseases. Acrolein (2-propenal) is a major cytotoxic product of lipid peroxidation and its adduction to neuronal proteins has been demonstrated in diseased brain regions from patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Mitochondrial abnormalities are implicated in several neurodegenerative disorders, and mitochondria are targets of alkenal adduction in vivo. We examined the effects of acrolein upon multiple endpoints associated with the mitochondrial involvement in neurodegenerative disease. Acrolein inhibited state 3 respiration with an IC(50) of approx. 0.4 micromol/mg protein; however, there was no reduction in activity of complexes I-V. This inhibition was prevented by glutathione and N-acetylcysteine. Acrolein did not alter mitochondrial calcium transporter activity or induce cytochrome c release. These studies indicate that acrolein is a potent inhibitor of brain mitochondrial respiration.

Free Radic Biol Med. 2000 Oct 15;29(8):714-20.
Acrolein, a product of lipid peroxidation, inhibits glucose and glutamate uptake in primary neuronal cultures.
Lovell MA, Xie C, Markesbery WR.
Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Increased lipid peroxidation, decreased levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids, and increased levels of 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), F(2)-isoprostanes, and F(4)-neuroprostanes are present in the brain in patients with AD. Acrolein, an alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydic product of lipid peroxidation has been demonstrated to be approximately 100 times more reactive than HNE and is present in neurofibrillary tangles in the brain in AD. We recently demonstrated statistically significant elevated concentrations of extractable acrolein in the hippocampus/parahippocampal gyrus and amygdala in AD compared with age-matched control subjects. Concentrations of acrolein were two to five times those of HNE in the same samples. Treatment of hippocampal cultures with acrolein led to a time- and concentration-dependent decrease in cell survival as well as a concentration-dependent increase in intracellular calcium. In cortical neuron cultures, we now report that acrolein causes a concentration-dependent impairment of glutamate uptake and glucose transport in cortical neuron cultures. Treatment of cortical astrocyte cultures with acrolein led to the same pattern of impairment of glutamate uptake as observed in cortical neuron cultures. Collectively, these data demonstrate neurotoxicity mechanisms of arolein that might be important in the pathogenesis of neuron degeneration in AD.

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