Nutrition and Brain Growth in Chick Embryos
Maternal PUFA Intake Increases Breast Cancer Risk in Female Offspring
PUFA, Estrogen, Obesity and Early Onset of Puberty
Prenatal Exposure to Radiation Increases Cancer Risk
Hum Reprod. 1999 Aug;14(8):2155-61.
Tryptophan ingestion by pregnant rats induces pituitary and mammary tumours in the adult female offspring.
Santana C, Martin L, Valladares F, Diaz-Flores L, Santana-Herrera C, Milena A, Rodríguez Díaz M.
The present study was designed to evaluate the long-term consequences of tryptophan treatment on the central serotonergic activity in the female offspring of rats, and particularly on serotonin-controlled hormone release. During the second half of gestation, tryptophan (200 mg/kg/day) was given daily by stomach intubation to pregnant rats and the brain concentrations of serotonin and 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid and the plasma concentrations of prolactin, progesterone, oestradiol and luteinizing hormone were quantified in the adult female offspring. The offspring showed an increase in hypothalamic serotonin and serum progesterone and prolactin. In addition, maternal ingestion of tryptophan induced a marked rise in 665-day-old offspring in the incidence of both pituitary prolactinomas (62%) and mammary adenomas (49%). Present data suggest that tryptophan regulates serotonergic differentiation during early development. A transitory modification of the tryptophan concentration in the fetal brain induces a permanent increase in hypothalamic serotonin level and, in addition to modifying the release of prolactin, increases the incidence of tumours in the hypophysis and mammary gland.
Brain Res. 1997 Nov 7;774(1-2):265-8.
Tryptophan ingestion by gestant mothers alters prolactin and luteinizing hormone release in the adult male offspring.
Martin L, Rodríguez Díaz M, Santana-Herrera C, Milena A, Santana C.
The effect of tryptophan administration to pregnant rats on the development of serotonergic systems and serotonin-related hormones in the offspring was studied. The male offspring of rats treated with tryptophan (200 mg/kg/day) during the second half of gestation showed a 4- to 7-fold increase in serum prolactin 40 and 70 days after birth and a 2-fold increase in serum luteinizing hormone 70 days after birth. The forebrain of adult offspring of tryptophan-treated rats showed an increase in serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels. Present data suggest that tryptophan regulates serotonergic differentiation during early development.