Categories:

Carbohydrate Lowers Exercise Induced Stress

Also see:
Exercise Induced Stress
Tryptophan, Fatigue, Training, and Performance
Carbohydrate Lowers Free Tryptophan
Sugar (Sucrose) Restrains the Stress Response

Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2006 Feb;38(2):286-92.
Effects of graded carbohydrate supplementation on the immune response in cycling.
Scharhag J, Meyer T, Auracher M, Gabriel HH, Kindermann W.
PURPOSE:
This study examined the acute immune response after three standardized cycling sessions of 4-h duration in the field with varying carbohydrate (CHO) supplementation in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled fashion. We hypothesized that the ingestion of carbohydrate (6 or 12% CHO beverages; placebo (P) without CHO) during exercise attenuates the exercise-induced immune response in a dose-dependent manner.
METHODS:
A total of 14 male competitive cyclists and triathletes (age: 25 +/- 5 yr; height: 180 +/- 7 cm; weight: 72 +/- 9 kg; VO2max: 67 +/- 6 mL.min(-1).kg(-1)) cycled for 4 h on a 400-m track at a given workload of 70% of the individual anaerobic threshold (198 +/- 21 W). Leukocyte and lymphocyte subpopulations were measured by flow cytometry before, immediately, and 1 and 19 h after exercise. In addition, C-reactive protein (CRP) interleukin 6 (IL-6), and cortisol were determined.
RESULTS:
The exercise-induced increase in leukocytes, neutrophils, and monocytes was significantly attenuated to the same extent by 6 and 12% CHO (P < 0.001). No differences could be demonstrated for lymphocytes and natural killer cells. The increase in CRP was attenuated significantly by 12% CHO only (P < 0.05), whereas the increase in cortisol and IL-6 was significantly reduced by 6 and 12% CHO (P < 0.001). The postexercise neutrophilia, which dominated the exercise-induced leukocytosis, was strongly related to the postexercise concentration of cortisol (r = 0.72; P < 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS:
Because of the lacking dose-dependent difference, the ingestion of at least 6% CHO beverages can sufficiently attenuate the exercise-induced immune response and stress, especially in phagocytizing cells (neutrophils and monocytes) by the reduced release of cortisol.

Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2005 Oct;15(5):465-79.
Influence of acute vitamin C and/or carbohydrate ingestion on hormonal, cytokine, and immune responses to prolonged exercise.
Davison G, Gleeson M.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of vitamin C with or without carbohydrate consumed acutely in beverages before and during prolonged cycling on immunoendocrine responses. In a single blind, randomized manner six healthy, moderately trained males exercised for 2.5 h at 60% VO(2max)and consumed either placebo (PLA), carbohydrate (CHO, 6% w/v), vitamin C (VC, 0.15% w/v) or CHO+VC beverages before and during the bouts; trials were separated by 1 wk. CHO and CHO+VC significantly blunted the post-exercise increase in plasma concentrations of cortisol, ACTH, total leukocyte, and neutrophil counts and limited the decrease in plasma glucose concentration and bacteria-stimulated neutrophil degranulation. VC increased plasma antioxidant capacity (PAC) during exercise (P < 0.05) but had no effect on any of the immunoendocrine responses (P > 0.05). CHO+VC increased PAC compared to CHO but had no greater effects,p above those observed with CHO alone, on any of the immunoendocrine responses. In conclusion, acute supplementation with a high dose of VC has little or no effect on the hormonal, interleukin-6, or immune response to prolonged exercise and combined ingestion of VC with CHO provides no additional effects compared with CHO alone.

Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2000 Aug;32(8):1384-9.
Influence of carbohydrate on cytokine and phagocytic responses to 2 h of rowing.
Henson DA, Nieman DC, Nehlsen-Cannarella SL, Fagoaga OR, Shannon M, Bolton MR, Davis JM, Gaffney CT, Kelln WJ, Austin MD, Hjertman JM, Schilling BK.
PURPOSE:
This study examined the influence of carbohydrate (C) versus placebo (P) beverage ingestion on the phagocytic and cytokine responses to normal rowing training by 15 elite female rowers.
METHODS:
Athletes received C or P before, during and after, two, 2-h bouts of rowing performed on consecutive days. Blood was collected before and 5-10 min and 1.5 h after rowing. Metabolic measures indicated that training was performed at moderate intensities, with some high-intensity intervals interspersed throughout the sessions.
RESULTS:
Concentrations of blood neutrophils and monocytes, phagocytic activity, and plasma IL-1ra were significantly lower postexercise after C versus P ingestion. No differences were observed for oxidative burst activity, IL-6, IL-8, or TNFalpha. Glucose was significantly higher after 2 h of rowing with C ingestion; however, cortisol, growth hormone, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and CRP were not affected by carbohydrate.
CONCLUSIONS:
These data indicate that carbohydrate compared with placebo ingestion attenuated the moderate rise in blood neutrophils, monocytes, phagocytosis, and plasma IL-1ra concentrations that followed 2-h bouts of training in elite female rowers. No changes in blood hormone concentrations were found.

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5 Responses

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  1. ET says

    Thank you for posting these studies. Do you have a recommendation for the type of carbohydrate drink that is most suitable, or does it even matter? I like home made orange juice, which I think has around 9-11% carbohydrate, but others argue that a higher proportion of glucose would be beneficial (as opposed to a high fructose content).

  2. Team FPS says

    I often recommend consuming fresh orange juice with a little canning and pickling salt added. The sodium, magnesium, potassium, and sugars have a broad anti-stress effect. Dr. Peat mentioned the anti-stress effects of having some baking soda prior to exercise in his latest interview (Alkalinity v Acidity).

    http://www.functionalps.com/blog/2011/09/12/master-list-ray-peat-phd-interviews/

  3. ET says

    Dear Team FPS, Thank you so much for your answer. Much appreciated. I will try to experiment with a tiny bit of baking soda. Your masterlist of interviews is gold, thanks. Recommend you add a “subscribe to comments by email” function for blog posts.

  4. Team FPS says

    I am not sure how to add that function. If you can advise, I will consider adding the option. Thanks.



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